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Research & Benefits


Clinical Research Papers

Music produces alterations in physiology. Soothing music can produce a response characteristic of relaxation in which autonomic, immune, endocrine and neuropeptide systems are altered. Likewise it produces desired psychological responses such as reductions in anxiety and fear. Some responses have been linked to effects on the hemispheric functioning of the brain and the limbic system. High psychophysiological stress levels inhibit or block learning. Thus music can be the catalyst to facilitate mental suggestion, and enhance our own learning ability and self-healing capacities. Music is now being used in many areas of medicine including labor and delivery, ICU, CCU, surgery, dentistry, neurology, psychiatry, gerontology, rehabilitation, oncology, pain and stress management, and many others. The military has been using music for PTSD for over 60 years.

Physically, references to the healing power of music have been made that relate to: pain relief, reducing blood pressure, providing medicine for the heart, speeding up post-stroke recovery, remedying chronic headaches and migraine, boosting the immune system, producing an anti-seizure effect, decreasing post-partum anxiety and pain, preventing chronic tinnitus, improving athletic performance and productivity.

Mentally, references to the affects of music on the brain point to improvements in sleep, concentration, attention, reading, and literacy, spatial-temporal reasoning, mathematical abilities, memory performance, stress reduction, decreased depression and emotional intelligence.

Vibroacoustic Therapies

1) The Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Symptom Reduction Inducing the Relaxation Response through Good Vibrations Dr. George Patrick
http://vibroacoustic.org/FrequencyInfo/Research%20Articles/Effects_of_Vibroacoustic_Music_on_Symptom_Reduction.pdf
IEEE Eng Med Biol. March/April 1999:97–100.

Ongoing since 1995, the National Institutes of Health has the most extensive program in the U.S. for vibroacoustic pain and symptom reduction, treating over 50,000 patients per year. In one study, Dr. George Patrick measured the physiological and behavioural effectiveness of these interventions with 272 patients and found over 50% reduction of pain and symptoms.

"Good, good, good, good vibrations" proclaimed the Beach Boys in both words and vibrant harmony. As with most of their music, the simple lyrics are outweighed by harmonic message. Still, their teenaged composer and lyricist, Brian Wilson, was inspired by why dogs barked at specific people and why certain girls emanated exciting vibrations ("excitations"). Music and vibration would appear to be far from the concerns of human adaptation, but surprise has always been a driver of scientific investigation.
The need for hospitalized patients to experience the relaxation response as an antidote to the stress of treatment and adjustment to the possibility of chronic or life-threatening conditions is clear. The systematic application of music to promote positive changes in behavior has been used successfully in a variety of hospital settings. The effectiveness of music interventions in stress management has been measured physiologically and behaviorally.

This present study extends previous research by describing the outcome of a recreation therapy program of Vibroacoustic music (VAM) offered to hospitalized patients. Results indicate over 50% reduction of pain and symptoms through the use of VAM. In order to provide patients with assistance in achieving the relaxation response, recreation therapists at a major federal research hospital created several relaxation opportunities for patients and family members. Included in these opportunities were classes in:
• Relaxation techniques (instruction in progressive relaxation, guided imagery, autogenic training, rhythmic breathing, light exercise and mindfulness meditation);
• Tai chi;
• Group meditation
• Other focus activities (i.e. exercise, arts, and crafts)

In addition, the recreation therapists created a relaxation room, equipped with four Somatrons, which is commercially available Vibroacoustic Music Recliner delivering ear-level stereo sound and tactile vibrations that allow the body to feel the music that is normally only heard. Patients can access an initial session in the relaxation room using anxiolytically designed (relaxing) music titled "Balance." Subsequent uses of the relaxation room have employed either "Balance" or music from "The Musical Body" (Therasound). In all cases, the relaxation room is a recreation therapist-guided session with a 10-minute introduction, 25 minutes of music/vibration, and about 10 minutes of debriefing (a total of 45 minutes per session).

The researcher and colleagues were surprised at patients reporting that they received unintended (and unadvertised) symptomatic relief as a result of VAM. These unsolicited testimonials led the program evaluation to include a measure of patient symptoms in both pre and post VAM sessions.

Method (Sampling Procedure)
A program evaluation yielded data from the use of these VAM recliners with anxiolytic music gathered from 272 adult patients in a major research hospital. This was a convenience sample of those who came to the relaxation room. Patients were recruited by several methods; physician referral, patient response to recreation therapist recommendation, or patient response to information about the relaxation room (printed materials and word of mouth from other patients). These patients had varying diagnoses; cancer (97); heart, lung, and blood disorders (55); infectious disease (54); mood disorders (32); and miscellaneous conditions (34). Their ages ranged from 21 to 67, with an average age of 43.7 years. Females made up 53% of the sample. Again, this study reports a program evaluation. As such, no effort was made to develop a meaningful control group.

Measurements and Variables
Data were gathered from two patient self-report instruments, completed immediately before and after the VAM session. State of relaxation was measured by selecting one of seven statements from the "Self-Report Rating Scale for Tension and Relaxation" asking "Which of the following best describes the way you feel right now?"

1. Feeling more deeply and completely relaxed than I ever have.
2. Feeling completely relaxed throughout my entire body.
3. Feeling more relaxed than usual.
4. Feeling generally tense throughout my body.
5. Feeling relaxed as in my normal resting state.

All 272 patients completed this Self-Report Rating Scale for Tension and Relaxation. It was used as a comparative value for the symptom intensity, visual analog scale.

Because this study attempted to track whatever symptoms patients were experiencing at the moment before the VAM session, the open-ended questions asked of them were: "What symptom(s) are you experiencing now?" and "At what level of intensity?". Up to three symptoms were requested from our patients, and they were asked to place a hash mark on a visual analog scale (VAS) to rate the intensity of each particular symptom. The line was anchored at its ends by the printed phases "not at all" and "very much." Some chose no symptoms.

The pre-post data set afforded a between-groups analysis among the dependent variables. To analyze the results, we employed a paired t-test to determine the probability of the changes in pre versus post differences.

Results (Descriptive Findings)
To measure the state of relaxation, the seven point Self-Report Rating Scale for Tension and Relaxation was used. With N=272, the pre rating was 5.12 (5 is "Feeling Some Tension in Some Parts of My Body") while the post rating was 2.77 (3 is "Feeling More Relaxed Than Usual"), a statistically significant difference. Although this scale is ordinal, anchored with descriptive language (categorically ordered), the Bartlett's test of fit allowed for an estimation of effective improvement of 33.4% in state of relaxation.

Aggregation of the symptom data showed an average participant pre (VAS) rating of 67.20 (of 100) and a post rating of 31.55, a 53% reduction in cumulated symptoms. Only the first (of up to three) symptoms was analyzed in this program evaluation to simplify the data displayed here. The most frequently identified symptoms were tension-anxiety, pain fatigue, nausea, headache, and depression, which comprised 92% of the symptoms mentioned. The post rating was done at the end of the VAM session in order to determine the perceived effect in order to determine the perceived effect of the session on the symptom and to reduce the influence of other variables. Each of these symptoms showed reduction in intensity based on pre-post mean scores. The intensity of symptoms was reduced from pre to post by the following percentages; nausea 61%; headache, 58%; tension-anxiety, 54%; pain, 53%; depressed mood, 49% and fatigue, 47%. A one-sample t-test (pre-post) was performed and all the results were statistically significant at P<.0001.

Discussion
Data were not analyzed by diagnostic group for purposes of this study. An inspection of the patient-reported symptoms showed that such symptoms frequently were not associated with the disease, only occasionally associated with the treatment (i.e. nausea from chemotherapy), and were clustered under what could be called psychosocial stress (a result of disease, hospitalization, and experimental treatment) secondary to primary diagnosis. Since both the room and program name were titled "relaxation," the author felt that changes in self-reported symptom intensity would be far from "leading" (not telling us what they thought we wanted to hear). Still, patients seemed to find a way to give us answers we wanted to receive. That kind of willingness, plus the nonrandom selection and lack of control group, should give rise to suspicion as to our results.

This program evaluation data yielded descriptive information showing symptom reduction over the period of a single 45-minute VAM session. Having conceived this program evaluation as an initial exploration, the researcher offered no initial hypotheses. The robustness of these salutary results, however, affords the opportunity to at least speculate on what might be going on during VAM.

The power of the relaxation response may yet to be fully documented. Hypnotic trance states have been used to help patients successfully through difficult medical procedures, such as surgery, with considerable less post-surgical complications and reduced recovery time. The whole area of mind-body medicine struggles with hypothesis development that requires an expanded view of reciprocal causation in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Another speculation offered is the role of the placebo effect and positive expectations. Our focus on the relaxation response (name of the room, program name, and asking for relaxation ratings) was helpful in minimizing any expectation for symptom reduction. Still many patients are given to please their caretakers and we might well have measured a response bias. The placebo effect has been measured as strong as 30 - 60%. It is clearly a real effect and ought to be optimized rather than ruled out. Even double-blind, random selection studies are unable to factor out the placebo effect; therefore, we acknowledge and embrace this limitation.

The focus of this study touches on the role of music/vibration in human adaptation. In some way, music/vibration of certain frequencies, intensities, rhythms, etc., might be implicated in the body's regulatory mechanisms. In general, most hospitalized patients could benefit from some form of down-regulation of "sympathetic tone" (an interesting phrase in this discussion). The researcher entertains the notion that multiple mechanisms of the body may use music/vibration to regain a healthy homeostasis. Indeed, Chesky has suggested that pacinian corpuscles, excited by vibrations of certain frequencies, may mediate pain and other noxious stimuli.

Disease can be seen as the inability of the human organism to cope with or handle disturbances insulting to its homeostatic systems. The science of medicine is being reshaped by the role of molecular messengers that communicate to regulatory mechanisms in ways that are well beyond our understanding of the "hard-wired" nervous system. The blood-brain barrier has become about as relevant as the Berlin wall. If the super-high-frequency vibrations of light affect our mood states and biological time clocks, how far afield is it to suspect that music and vibration (at much lower frequencies) have effects on psycho-neurophysiology?

In the future, when this program evaluation develops into a more carefully conceived research study, with attention to patient selection and assignment, an attempt at a control condition, and a range of calibrated dosage levels, our research team will be in a better position to make stronger claims generalizability. Nonetheless, sufficient data were generated to indicate that many patients using VAM experienced a deep relaxation response and reduced their symptom burden. Clinical impressions by the group of five recreation therapists were commensurate with the statistical significance reported. Having some personal control of their symptom burden pleased most patients. This positive outcome was used to point out that patients could clearly benefit by regular practice of an effective relaxation technique. Patients were given additional training in the "Art of Relaxation; class, through individual instruction, or by readings.

Conclusions
The present results suggest the value of using VAM to induce the relaxation response in order to reduce the symptom burden of hospitalized patients. These findings point to an avenue of future research using careful selection assignment, controls, variable dosage, and longer follow-up periods to test the durability of VAM interventions. Perhaps Brian Wilson was more right than he knew when he recommended that we would do well to "Keep good vibrations a happenin' to me."

Acknowledgment
The author wishes to acknowledge assistance in data collection and clinical expertise of the following recreation therapists who, with him, run the relaxation room: Sharon Ballard, Jane Ganz, Cindy White, Linda Scimeca, and Jim Ebel. Mark Mattiko helped with data analysis. George Patrick serves as chief of recreation therapy in the Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, of the National Institutes of Health. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Illinois. His professional career as a recreation therapist spans five states and a wide variety of clients. Dr. Patrick plays golf, rides a sport motorcycle, serves food to the homeless in Washington, DC, and is enjoying grand fatherhood. With his wife, Jane, he enjoys music of the National Symphony and sings in a church choir.

Symptom Change from a Single VAM Session
Symptom (N)
Pre
SD
Post
SD
% Diff.
P
Tension (74)
67.85
19.90
31.18
19.88
54.00
<.0001
Fatigue (60)
72.16
17.48
37.98
22.61
47.36
<.0001
Pain (46)
64.96
20.32
30.33
18.05
63.33
<.0001
Headache (24)
60.46
20.77
25.67
19.90
57.64
<.0001
Depression (18)
71.00
19.77
35.89
19.25
49.45
<.0001
Nausea (16)
67.25
20.66
26.25
50.47
60.97
<.0001
Other (29)
61.97
19.44
27.10
22.49
56.27
<.0001
Combined (267)
67.19
19.67
31.54
20.70
53.04
<.0001

 

2) Music and Vibration Therapy as Clinical Intervention for Physiologic Functional Adaptation
Berger, Dorita S. and Schneck, Daniel J. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 687-703, 2003
http://www.academia.edu/4340349/The_Use_of_Music_Therapy_as_a_Clinical_Intervention_for_Physiologic_Functional_Adaptation

To summarize, we suggest that music has the ability to alter fear and stress responses by re-setting homeostatic set-points precisely because music elements synergize with physiologic function and can therefore alter homeostatic set-points to derive positive results. As a medical intervention, music therapy impacts upon stress and fear responses in a manner resulting in stress and pain management, language and cognition, memory, attention, functional motorplanning (praxis), auditory tracking, figure-ground awareness, depth perception, sound location, auditory/visual integration, auditory and motor coordination, proprioception, vestibular and tactile stimulation, and many other areas of human function.

3) Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy Improves Pain Management and More
Chris Boyd-Brewer, MA, FAMI Ruth McCaffrey, ARNP, ND
http://www.vibroacoustictherapy.com/documents/Vibroacoustic-Sound-Therapy-Improves-Pain-Management.pdf
Might have to copy and paste this link

Compelling evidence has been provided by a variety of studies that vibroacoustic music is a viable pain and symptom management tool. Benefits from vibroacoustic therapy are clearly suggested, although there appear to be many variables in the type of equipment employed, frequencies and/or music used, and session methodology. In the healthcare setting continued research is necessary to adequately determine parameters of optimal vibroacoustic use.

As the authors point out: no single explanation can prove positive effects from the use of vibroacoustic music in health practices. When considering how and why vibroacoustic therapy works, it is important to recognize that effectiveness may come from both physical and mental stimulation. It may be that the synergy of the two, the mind-body connection, makes this methodology successful in relaxation and pain reduction.

The article summarizes three possible explanations for the positive effects of vibroacoustic therapy: 1. Vibroacoustic music sessions trigger the relaxation response with benefits for pain and symptom reduction as well as tension, fatigue, headache, nausea, and depression. 2. Stimulation of the Pacinian corpuscle at frequencies between 60 Hz and 600 Hz creates neuronal inhibition of pain. 3. Vibration may assist in cellular cleansing mechanisms with possible positive effects on health and illness.

Research has indicated that positive effects for pain relief using vibration technology are more effective over large areas of the body, and pain relief is more significant when applied in close proximity to where the pain is experienced.

4) Vibroacoustic Treatments for Parkinson’s Patients Lessens or Eradicates Symptoms
Abstract
Objectives
The objectives of this study were to gather preliminary data on psychological and physiologic effects of a 20 minute vibroacoustic treatment. The treatment included 4 components of interest:

1. The Music – Heart opening and powerful
2. Binaural Beats – the music includes both theta and delta frequencies tuned to the music.
3. Sound Chair - The subjects were on a powerful sound chair with 4 bass transducers vibrating the body.
4. Rotating Chair - The sound chair rotates (so the subjects go a bit on their side, then on their back, then upright), activating the vestibular system in the subjects.

Subjects:
12 adults with varying degrees of symptoms and medication participated in the study.

Intervention:
Participants listened to a CD with theta delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies for 20 minutes on the rotating sound chair.

Results:
Subjects filled out a form with information on their symptoms on a scale of 1-10 (10 being the most severe). Upon completion the subjects again rated their symptoms. The symptoms were reduced on average from 8 to 2. 50% of the subjects had their symptoms reduced to 0. One subject had their symptoms from 8 – 6. Subjects were contacted the following day. 30% of the subjects still had some level of symptom reduction. Three subjects reported that they slept well for the first time in over a year.

Conclusions:
The particular music, binaural beats, and rotating sound chair are extremely effective in reducing symptoms. More research is needed to pin point which of the four parameters is the most effective, or if the effect is as a result of the combination of parameters.

 

5) Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy effective for Symptom Reduction
Patrick, George, Recreation Therapy-Rehabilitation, Medicine Department, Clinical Center NIH
http://www.vibrationtherapy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Effects-of-VibroAcoustic-Music-on-Symptom-Reduction.pdf
Might have to copy and paste this link

A study done on the effect of using vibroacoustic music as a treatment for symptom reduction in patients suffering from a variety of diagnoses including cancer, heart, lung and blood disorders, infectious disease, and mood disorders. Their most frequently identified symptoms were tension-anxiety, pain, fatigue, nausea, headache and depression. As a result of the vibroacoustic session, the reported intensity of symptoms was reduced from pre to post by the following percentages: nausea, 61%; headache, 58%; tension-anxiety, 54%; pain, 53%; depressed mood, 49%; and fatigue, 47%.

6) Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities
http://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/effects-of-vibroacoustic-music-on-challenging-behaviors/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750946708000895

Abstract:
Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. The participants were randomized into two groups in a randomized controlled trial evaluation. The first group received 10 - 20 min sessions with vibroacoustic music treatment for 5 weeks. Then the second group received the same treatment during the next 5 weeks. Behavior was assessed using the Behavior Problems Inventory in all participants before the treatment, after the first group had completed their treatment, and again after the second group had completed their treatment. In order to evaluate each session, the accompanying assistants assessed behavior on different scales after each session. In addition, the sessions were videotaped and analyzed minute by minute for challenging behaviors. The results revealed that vibroacoustic music reduced self-injurious, stereotypic, and aggressive destructive behaviors in the participants. In addition, the results indicated that the effect of vibroacoustic music was to some extent dependent on the participants’ diagnosis. Implications for vibroacoustic music theory and practice are discussed.

7) Effects of a Low-frequency Sound Wave Therapy Programme on Functional Capacityhttp://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/effects-of-a-low-frequency-sound-wave-therapy-programme-on-functional-capacity-2/

Objective
To evaluate the effects of a low-frequency sound wave therapy programme on functional capacity, blood circulation and bone metabolism of the frail elderly.

Conclusions
Low-frequency sound wave therapy may have the potential to promote well-being of frail elderly subjects via improved functional capacity, especially in subjects who are too frail to undertake exercise.

8) Jean-Martin Charcot and His Vibratory Chair for Parkinson's Disease
http://www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=1744&accno=2010367955

Vibration therapy is currently used in diverse medical specialties ranging from orthopedics to urology to sports medicine. The celebrated 19th-century neurologist, J.-M. Charcot, used vibratory therapy to treat Parkinson disease (PD). This study analyzed printed writings by Charcot and other writers on vibratory therapy and accessed unpublished notes from the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris. Charcot lectured on several occasions on vibratory therapy and its neurologic applications. He developed a vibration chair for patients with PD after he observed that patients were more comfortable and slept better after a train or carriage ride. He replicated this experience by having patients undergo daily 30-minute sessions in the automated vibratory chair (fauteuil trépidant). His junior colleague, Gilles de la Tourette, extended these observations and developed a helmet that vibrated the head on the premise that the brain responded directly to the pulsations. Although after Charcot’s death vibratory therapy was not widely pursued, vibratory appliances are reemerging in 21st century medicine and can be retested using adaptations of Charcot’s neurologic protocols.

Goetz, C. G. (2009). Jean-Martin Charcot and his vibratory chair for Parkinson disease. Neurology, 73(6), 475-478.

9) Vibroacoustic Therapy for Parkinson’s, Fibromyalgia, Alzheimer’s and Depression
by Novotney, Amy. APA, Monitor on Psychology November 13, Vol 44, No. 10
http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/11/music.aspx
(American Psychological Association)

At its core, music is sound, and sound is rooted in vibration. Led by Lee Bartel, PhD, a music professor at the University of Toronto, several researchers are exploring whether sound vibrations absorbed through the body can help ease the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and depression. Known as vibroacoustic therapy, the intervention involves using low frequency sound — similar to a low rumble — to produce vibrations that are applied directly to the body. During vibroacoustic therapy, the patient lies on a mat or bed or sits in a chair embedded with speakers that transmit vibrations at specific computer-generated frequencies that can be heard and felt, says Bartel. He likens the process to sitting on a subwoofer.

In 2009, researchers led by Lauren K. King of the Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Centre at Wilfrid Laurier University, in Waterloo, Ontario, found that short-term use of vibroacoustic therapy with Parkinson's disease patients led to improvements in symptoms, including less rigidity and better walking speed with bigger steps and reduced tremors (NeuroRehabilitation, December, 2009). In that study, the scientists exposed 40 Parkinson's disease patients to low-frequency 30-hertz vibration for one minute, followed by a one-minute break. They then alternated the two for a total of 10 minutes. The researchers are now planning a long-term study of the use of vibroacoustic therapy with Parkinson's patients, as part of a new partnership with the University of Toronto's Music and Health Research Collaboratory, which brings together scientists from around the world who are studying music's effect on health.

The group is also examining something called thalmocortical dysrhythmia — a disorientation of rhythmic brain activity involving the thalamus and the outer cortex that appears to play a role in several medical conditions including Parkinson's, fibromyalgia and possibly even Alzheimer's disease, says Bartel, who directs the collaboratory.

"Since the rhythmic pulses of music can drive and stabilize this disorientation, we believe that low-frequency sound might help with these conditions," Bartel says. He is leading a study using vibroacoustic therapy with patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. The hope is that using the therapy to restore normal communication among brain regions may allow for greater memory retrieval, he says.

"We've already seen glimmers of hope in a case study with a patient who had just been diagnosed with the disorder," Bartel says. "After stimulating her with 40-hertz sound for 30 minutes three times a week for four weeks, she could recall the names of her grandchildren more easily, and her husband reported good improvement in her condition."

The goal of all of this work is to develop "dosable" and "prescribable" music therapy and music as medicine protocols that serve specific neurologic functions and attend to deficits that may result from many of these neurologically based conditions. Rather than viewing music only as a cultural phenomenon, Bartel says, the art should be seen as a vibratory stimulus that has cognitive and memory dimensions.

"Only when we look at it in this way do we start to see the interface to how the brain and body work together."

10) Low Frequency Sound Treatment Promoting Physical and Emotional Relaxationhttp://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/low-frequency-sound-treatment-promoting-physical-and-emotional-relaxation/

Abstract
Low frequency sound has many applications in medicine but the efficacy and effectiveness of low frequency sound treatment in health prevention remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives and potentials of physioacoustic chairs low frequency sound treatment when applied to daily activities amongst a sample of music students, faculty and/or staff, and to examine how participants view the benefits of the intervention for their well-being, health and health-related activities. The results show that the physioacoustic low frequency treatment added to a participants subjective well-being by increasing their physical and emotional relaxation level, decreasing pain and stress, and increasing emotion enrichment and concentration. The study served as a pilot, to confirm stakeholder interest and to gain information on the feasibility of a larger study.

Results
Low frequency sound intervention – increased well-being in daily life – physical and emotional relaxation. The results of this study show that low frequency sound treatment can have a positive effect for participants’ overall well-being in their daily life: “…I feel it has increased my well-being. I experienced joy in the chair…†Increased well-being includes both physical and emotional relaxation. The descriptive categories created based on participants experiences focus on physical pain and tension, emotion enrichment, stress management, and concentration skills. The results show that pain and tension decreased, sense of peace, self-reflection, and clarity increased as well as focus and alertness.

11) Vibrotactile Stimulation in Rehabilitation of Early Brain Injury
http://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/vibrotactile-stimulation-in-rehabilitation-of-early-brain-injury-5/

Afferent signals from the muscle’s proprioceptors play important role in the control of muscle tone and in the facilitation of movements. Peripheral afferent pathway enables the restoration of connections with supraspinal structures and so includes mechanism of synaptic inhibition in the performance of normal movement. Different sensory stimuli, as vibrotactile stimulation, excite muscle’s proprioceptors which then send sensorimotor information via spinal cord. In this way afferent signals promote cortical control and modulation of movements.

The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of vibrotactile stimulation on the spasticity and motor performance in children with cerebral injury. Subjects included in this study were 13 children who were developing the classification of spastic cerebral palsy. For all children perinatal brain damage was documented by medical reports and neonatal brain ultrasound scan.

At the mean age of 3 years and 6 months subject underwent the assessment of motor development by Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-88). Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS) has been used to classify functions of lower extremities.

Therapeutic intervention was conducted once a week during 3 months. All subjects were stimulated with vibrotactile stimuli of 40Hz in duration of 20 minutes in order to reduce spasticity. After the ending of the treatment subjects underwent second assessment of motor performance and the classification of lower extremities functions. The results have shown that there was a significant improvement in motor performance, what has been seen in the facilitation of rotations, better postural trunk stability and head control and in greater selectivity of movements.

Further randomized, control trial investigations with bigger sample and included spasm scale are needed to gain better insight in the role of vibrotactile stimulation in the facilitation of normal movements.

This abstract presents pilot project for further research in this field.
You can find full text in Collegium Antropologicum 35 (2011) Suppl 1.: 57-63

12) Effects of Low Frequency Sound Treatment on the Consciousness State of the Alzheimer Patients Pilot Studyhttp://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/effects-of-low-frequency-sound-treatment-on-the-consciousness-state-of-the-alzhe-4/
By Dr. Heidi Ahonen, Professor of Music Therapy, WLU, Waterloo, ON, Canada, Director, Manfred and Penny Conrad Institute for Music Therapy Research http://www.soundeffects.wlu.ca

Summary of Proposed Research
According to brain wave research, the 40Hz frequency from the thalamus area has an important role in the regulation of auditory-evoked potentials. (Galambos, Makeing, Tamachoff, 1981, Naatanen, 1992,). There has also been some evidence that the 40Hz brain wave is disturbed or disappears during in the early stages of Alzheimer disease (Llinas & Ribary, 1992; Ribary et al. 1991; van Deursen, Vuurman, Verhey, et. al.; Huang et al. 2000; Jelic et al. 1996; Jeong 2004; Koenig et al. 2005; Stam et al. 2002, 2003; Lustig et al. 2003). Llinas (1993) and Lehikoinen (1994, 1997) suggest that with auditory stimulation using a 40 Hz sound, it is possible to reinforce this thalamus frequency.

My research rationale is based on these assumptions. If Thalamus has a role in the cognitive brain functioning, and if the Thalamus frequency is disturbed in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, I believe it would be fascinating to stimulate it with auditory stimulation using a 40 Hz sound, and investigate this stimulation’s potential effect on cognitive brain functioning of the Alzheimer clients.

My research questions will investigate:
(1) Can the thalamus frequency be reinforced by the physioacoustic 40Hz intervention?
(2) Is the 40 Hz that have been disturbed or disappeared during the early stages of Alzheimer’s coming back if stimulated by the 40 Hz frequency created by the Physioacoustic method?
(3) Do Alzheimer patients receiving the 40Hz frequency intervention achieve a greater degree of consciousness and reality orientation than those in the control groups?
(4) Do Alzheimer patients receiving the 40Hz frequency intervention achieve a greater degree of short and long term memory than those in the control groups?
(5) Can the Physioacoustic 40Hz frequency-intervention be a potential intervention for Alzheimer’s clients?

During the various research trials Physioacoustic low frequency sound (Thalamus frequency 40Hz) is applied utilizing two control groups of Alzheimer patients, receiving either familiar music, or without familiar music. In a comparison of these two, it is anticipated that the application of the Physioacoustic low frequency sound will result in an increase of short-term consciousness, reality orientation, and affect both short-term and long-term memory capacities with Alzheimer patients. Both statistical analysis and qualitative analysis will be conducted. The combination of low frequency sound with familiar music is anticipated to be the most effective treatment modality with Alzheimer patients.

Experimental/control groups
(1) Group 1: During the 30 minute treatment these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will experience the 40Hz low frequency treatment and interview.
(2) Group 2: During the 30 minute treatment these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will simultaneously experience the conventional music therapy (familiar music: listening/singing) and the 40Hz low frequency treatment + interview by the therapist. The music therapist will choose the applicable music.
(3) Control Group 1: During the four 30 minute treatments these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will experience only conventional music therapy (familiar music: listening/singing) + interview by the therapist. The music therapist chooses the applicable music.
(4) Control Group 2: During the four 30 minute treatments these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will be interviewed by the therapist only.


13) “Low Frequency Sound Treatment Promoting Physical and Emotional Relaxation among Music Students, Faculty and Staff”
http://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/low-frequency-sound-treatment-promoting-physical-and-emotional-relaxation/

Abstract
Low frequency sound has many applications in medicine but the efficacy and effectiveness of low frequency sound treatment in health prevention remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives and potentials of a physioacoustic chair low frequency sound treatment when applied to daily activities amongst a sample of music students, faculty and/or staff, and to examine how participants view the benefits of the intervention for their wellbeing, health and health-related activities. The results show that the physioacoustic low frequency treatment added to a participants subjective well-being by increasing their physical and emotional relaxation level, decreasing pain and stress, and increasing emotion enrichment and concentration. The study served as a pilot, to confirm stakeholder interest and to gain information on the feasibility of a larger study.

 

Relaxation, Anxiety and Stress Reduction

1) The Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Symptom Reduction Inducing the Relaxation Response through Good Vibrations Dr. George Patrick
http://vibroacoustic.org/FrequencyInfo/Research%20Articles/Effects_of_Vibroacoustic_Music_on_Symptom_Reduction.pdf
IEEE Eng Med Biol. March/April 1999:97–100.

Ongoing since 1995, the National Institutes of Health has the most extensive program in the U.S. for vibroacoustic pain and symptom reduction, treating over 50,000 patients per year. In one study, Dr. George Patrick measured the physiological and behavioural effectiveness of these interventions with 272 patients and found over 50% reduction of pain and symptoms.

"Good, good, good, good vibrations" proclaimed the Beach Boys in both words and vibrant harmony. As with most of their music, the simple lyrics are outweighed by harmonic message. Still, their teenaged composer and lyricist, Brian Wilson, was inspired by why dogs barked at specific people and why certain girls emanated exciting vibrations ("excitations"). Music and vibration would appear to be far from the concerns of human adaptation, but surprise has always been a driver of scientific investigation.
The need for hospitalized patients to experience the relaxation response as an antidote to the stress of treatment and adjustment to the possibility of chronic or life-threatening conditions is clear. The systematic application of music to promote positive changes in behavior has been used successfully in a variety of hospital settings. The effectiveness of music interventions in stress management has been measured physiologically and behaviorally.

This present study extends previous research by describing the outcome of a recreation therapy program of Vibroacoustic music (VAM) offered to hospitalized patients. Results indicate over 50% reduction of pain and symptoms through the use of VAM. In order to provide patients with assistance in achieving the relaxation response, recreation therapists at a major federal research hospital created several relaxation opportunities for patients and family members. Included in these opportunities were classes in:
• Relaxation techniques (instruction in progressive relaxation, guided imagery, autogenic training, rhythmic breathing, light exercise and mindfulness meditation);
• Tai chi;
• Group meditation
• Other focus activities (i.e. exercise, arts, and crafts)

In addition, the recreation therapists created a relaxation room, equipped with four Somatrons, which is commercially available Vibroacoustic Music Recliner delivering ear-level stereo sound and tactile vibrations that allow the body to feel the music that is normally only heard. Patients can access an initial session in the relaxation room using anxiolytically designed (relaxing) music titled "Balance." Subsequent uses of the relaxation room have employed either "Balance" or music from "The Musical Body" (Therasound). In all cases, the relaxation room is a recreation therapist-guided session with a 10-minute introduction, 25 minutes of music/vibration, and about 10 minutes of debriefing (a total of 45 minutes per session).

The researcher and colleagues were surprised at patients reporting that they received unintended (and unadvertised) symptomatic relief as a result of VAM. These unsolicited testimonials led the program evaluation to include a measure of patient symptoms in both pre and post VAM sessions.

Method (Sampling Procedure)
A program evaluation yielded data from the use of these VAM recliners with anxiolytic music gathered from 272 adult patients in a major research hospital. This was a convenience sample of those who came to the relaxation room. Patients were recruited by several methods; physician referral, patient response to recreation therapist recommendation, or patient response to information about the relaxation room (printed materials and word of mouth from other patients). These patients had varying diagnoses; cancer (97); heart, lung, and blood disorders (55); infectious disease (54); mood disorders (32); and miscellaneous conditions (34). Their ages ranged from 21 to 67, with an average age of 43.7 years. Females made up 53% of the sample. Again, this study reports a program evaluation. As such, no effort was made to develop a meaningful control group.

Measurements and Variables
Data were gathered from two patient self-report instruments, completed immediately before and after the VAM session. State of relaxation was measured by selecting one of seven statements from the "Self-Report Rating Scale for Tension and Relaxation" asking "Which of the following best describes the way you feel right now?"

1. Feeling more deeply and completely relaxed than I ever have.
2. Feeling completely relaxed throughout my entire body.
3. Feeling more relaxed than usual.
4. Feeling generally tense throughout my body.
5. Feeling relaxed as in my normal resting state.

All 272 patients completed this Self-Report Rating Scale for Tension and Relaxation. It was used as a comparative value for the symptom intensity, visual analog scale.

Because this study attempted to track whatever symptoms patients were experiencing at the moment before the VAM session, the open-ended questions asked of them were: "What symptom(s) are you experiencing now?" and "At what level of intensity?". Up to three symptoms were requested from our patients, and they were asked to place a hash mark on a visual analog scale (VAS) to rate the intensity of each particular symptom. The line was anchored at its ends by the printed phases "not at all" and "very much." Some chose no symptoms.

The pre-post data set afforded a between-groups analysis among the dependent variables. To analyze the results, we employed a paired t-test to determine the probability of the changes in pre versus post differences.

Results (Descriptive Findings)
To measure the state of relaxation, the seven point Self-Report Rating Scale for Tension and Relaxation was used. With N=272, the pre rating was 5.12 (5 is "Feeling Some Tension in Some Parts of My Body") while the post rating was 2.77 (3 is "Feeling More Relaxed Than Usual"), a statistically significant difference. Although this scale is ordinal, anchored with descriptive language (categorically ordered), the Bartlett's test of fit allowed for an estimation of effective improvement of 33.4% in state of relaxation.

Aggregation of the symptom data showed an average participant pre (VAS) rating of 67.20 (of 100) and a post rating of 31.55, a 53% reduction in cumulated symptoms. Only the first (of up to three) symptoms was analyzed in this program evaluation to simplify the data displayed here. The most frequently identified symptoms were tension-anxiety, pain fatigue, nausea, headache, and depression, which comprised 92% of the symptoms mentioned. The post rating was done at the end of the VAM session in order to determine the perceived effect in order to determine the perceived effect of the session on the symptom and to reduce the influence of other variables. Each of these symptoms showed reduction in intensity based on pre-post mean scores. The intensity of symptoms was reduced from pre to post by the following percentages; nausea 61%; headache, 58%; tension-anxiety, 54%; pain, 53%; depressed mood, 49% and fatigue, 47%. A one-sample t-test (pre-post) was performed and all the results were statistically significant at P<.0001.

Discussion
Data were not analyzed by diagnostic group for purposes of this study. An inspection of the patient-reported symptoms showed that such symptoms frequently were not associated with the disease, only occasionally associated with the treatment (i.e. nausea from chemotherapy), and were clustered under what could be called psychosocial stress (a result of disease, hospitalization, and experimental treatment) secondary to primary diagnosis. Since both the room and program name were titled "relaxation," the author felt that changes in self-reported symptom intensity would be far from "leading" (not telling us what they thought we wanted to hear). Still, patients seemed to find a way to give us answers we wanted to receive. That kind of willingness, plus the nonrandom selection and lack of control group, should give rise to suspicion as to our results.

This program evaluation data yielded descriptive information showing symptom reduction over the period of a single 45-minute VAM session. Having conceived this program evaluation as an initial exploration, the researcher offered no initial hypotheses. The robustness of these salutary results, however, affords the opportunity to at least speculate on what might be going on during VAM.

The power of the relaxation response may yet to be fully documented. Hypnotic trance states have been used to help patients successfully through difficult medical procedures, such as surgery, with considerable less post-surgical complications and reduced recovery time. The whole area of mind-body medicine struggles with hypothesis development that requires an expanded view of reciprocal causation in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Another speculation offered is the role of the placebo effect and positive expectations. Our focus on the relaxation response (name of the room, program name, and asking for relaxation ratings) was helpful in minimizing any expectation for symptom reduction. Still many patients are given to please their caretakers and we might well have measured a response bias. The placebo effect has been measured as strong as 30 - 60%. It is clearly a real effect and ought to be optimized rather than ruled out. Even double-blind, random selection studies are unable to factor out the placebo effect; therefore, we acknowledge and embrace this limitation.

The focus of this study touches on the role of music/vibration in human adaptation. In some way, music/vibration of certain frequencies, intensities, rhythms, etc., might be implicated in the body's regulatory mechanisms. In general, most hospitalized patients could benefit from some form of down-regulation of "sympathetic tone" (an interesting phrase in this discussion). The researcher entertains the notion that multiple mechanisms of the body may use music/vibration to regain a healthy homeostasis. Indeed, Chesky has suggested that pacinian corpuscles, excited by vibrations of certain frequencies, may mediate pain and other noxious stimuli.

Disease can be seen as the inability of the human organism to cope with or handle disturbances insulting to its homeostatic systems. The science of medicine is being reshaped by the role of molecular messengers that communicate to regulatory mechanisms in ways that are well beyond our understanding of the "hard-wired" nervous system. The blood-brain barrier has become about as relevant as the Berlin wall. If the super-high-frequency vibrations of light affect our mood states and biological time clocks, how far afield is it to suspect that music and vibration (at much lower frequencies) have effects on psycho-neurophysiology?

In the future, when this program evaluation develops into a more carefully conceived research study, with attention to patient selection and assignment, an attempt at a control condition, and a range of calibrated dosage levels, our research team will be in a better position to make stronger claims generalizability. Nonetheless, sufficient data were generated to indicate that many patients using VAM experienced a deep relaxation response and reduced their symptom burden. Clinical impressions by the group of five recreation therapists were commensurate with the statistical significance reported. Having some personal control of their symptom burden pleased most patients. This positive outcome was used to point out that patients could clearly benefit by regular practice of an effective relaxation technique. Patients were given additional training in the "Art of Relaxation; class, through individual instruction, or by readings.

Conclusions
The present results suggest the value of using VAM to induce the relaxation response in order to reduce the symptom burden of hospitalized patients. These findings point to an avenue of future research using careful selection assignment, controls, variable dosage, and longer follow-up periods to test the durability of VAM interventions. Perhaps Brian Wilson was more right than he knew when he recommended that we would do well to "Keep good vibrations a happenin' to me."

Acknowledgment
The author wishes to acknowledge assistance in data collection and clinical expertise of the following recreation therapists who, with him, run the relaxation room: Sharon Ballard, Jane Ganz, Cindy White, Linda Scimeca, and Jim Ebel. Mark Mattiko helped with data analysis. George Patrick serves as chief of recreation therapy in the Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, of the National Institutes of Health. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Illinois. His professional career as a recreation therapist spans five states and a wide variety of clients. Dr. Patrick plays golf, rides a sport motorcycle, serves food to the homeless in Washington, DC, and is enjoying grand fatherhood. With his wife, Jane, he enjoys music of the National Symphony and sings in a church choir.

Symptom Change from a Single VAM Session
Symptom (N)
Pre
SD
Post
SD
% Diff.
P
Tension (74)
67.85
19.90
31.18
19.88
54.00
<.0001
Fatigue (60)
72.16
17.48
37.98
22.61
47.36
<.0001
Pain (46)
64.96
20.32
30.33
18.05
63.33
<.0001
Headache (24)
60.46
20.77
25.67
19.90
57.64
<.0001
Depression (18)
71.00
19.77
35.89
19.25
49.45
<.0001
Nausea (16)
67.25
20.66
26.25
50.47
60.97
<.0001
Other (29)
61.97
19.44
27.10
22.49
56.27
<.0001
Combined (267)
67.19
19.67
31.54
20.70
53.04
<.0001

 

2) Music Reduces Stress and Aids Relaxation
Listening to slow, quiet classical music, is proven to reduce stress3. Countless studies have shown that music's relaxing effects can be seen on anyone, including newborns.

One of the great benefits of music as a stress reliever is that it can be used while you do your usual deeds so that it really doesn't take time.

How does music reduce stress?

Physical relaxation. Music can promote relaxation of tense muscles, enabling you to easily release some of the tension you carry from a stressful day.

Aids in stress relief activities. Music can help you get "into the zone" when practicing yoga, self hypnosis or guided imagery, can help you feel energized when exercising and recover after exercising, help dissolve the stress when you're soaking in the tub.

Reduces negative emotions. Music, especially upbeat tunes, can take your mind off what stresses you, and help you feel more optimistic and positive. This helps release stress and can even help you keep from getting as stressed over life's little frustrations in the future. Researchers discovered4 that music can decrease the amount of the cortisol, a stress-related hormone produced by the body in response to stress.

3. Labbe' E, Schmidt N, Babin J, Pharr M. Coping with stress: the effectiveness of different types of music. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2007 Dec;32(3-4):163-8. PubMed

3) Music and Vibration Therapy as Clinical Intervention for Physiologic Functional Adaptation
Berger, Dorita S. and Schneck, Daniel J. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 687-703, 2003
http://www.academia.edu/4340349/The_Use_of_Music_Therapy_as_a_Clinical_Intervention_for_Physiologic_Functional_Adaptation

To summarize, we suggest that music has the ability to alter fear and stress responses by re-setting homeostatic set-points precisely because music elements synergize with physiologic function and can therefore alter homeostatic set-points to derive positive results. As a medical intervention, music therapy impacts upon stress and fear responses in a manner resulting in stress and pain management, language and cognition, memory, attention, functional motorplanning (praxis), auditory tracking, figure-ground awareness, depth perception, sound location, auditory/visual integration, auditory and motor coordination, proprioception, vestibular and tactile stimulation, and many other areas of human function.

4) Music Improves the Body's Immune System Function and Reduces Stress
by Novotney, Amy. APA, Monitor on Psychology November 13, Vol 44, No. 10
http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/11/music.aspx
(American Psychological Association)

While music has long been recognized as an effective form of therapy to provide an outlet for emotions, the notion of using song, sound frequencies and rhythm to treat physical ailments is a relatively new domain, says psychologist Daniel J. Levitin, PhD, who studies the neuroscience of music at McGill University in Montreal. A wealth of new studies is touting the benefits of music on mental and physical health. For example, in a meta-analysis of 400 studies, Levitin and his postgraduate research fellow, Mona

Lisa Chanda, PhD, found that music improves the body's immune system function and reduces stress. Listening to music was also found to be more effective than prescription drugs in reducing anxiety before surgery (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, April, 2013)."We've found compelling evidence that musical interventions can play a health-care role in settings ranging from operating rooms to family clinics," says Levitin, author of the book "This is Your Brain on Music" (Plume/Penguin, 2007). The analysis also points to just how music influences health. The researchers found that listening to and playing music increase the body's production of the antibody immunoglobulin A and natural killer cells — the cells that attack invading viruses and boost the immune system's effectiveness. Music also reduces levels of the stress hormone cortisol.

"This is one reason why music is associated with relaxation," Levitin says.

One recent study on the link between music and stress found that music can help soothe pediatric emergency room patients (JAMA Pediatrics, July, 2013). In the trial with 42 children ages 3 to 11, University of Alberta researchers found that patients who listened to relaxing music while getting an IV inserted reported significantly less pain, and some demonstrated significantly less distress, compared with patients who did not listen to music. In addition, in the music-listening group, more than two-thirds of the health-care providers reported that the IVs were very easy to administer — compared with 38 percent of providers treating the group that did not listen to music.

"There is growing scientific evidence showing that the brain responds to music in very specific ways," says Lisa Hartling, PhD, professor of pediatrics at the University of Alberta and lead author of the study. "Playing music for kids during painful medical procedures is a simple intervention that can make a big difference."

Music can help adult patients, too. Researchers at Khoo Teck Puat Hospital in Singapore. They found that patients in palliative care who took part in live music therapy sessions reported relief from persistent pain (Progress in Palliative Care, July, 2013). Music therapists worked closely with the patients to individually tailor the intervention, and patients took part in singing, instrument playing, lyric discussion and even song writing as they worked toward accepting an illness or weighed end-of-life issues.

"Active music engagement allowed the patients to reconnect with the healthy parts of themselves, even in the face of a debilitating condition or disease-related suffering," says music therapist Melanie Kwan, co-author of the study and president of the Association for Music Therapy, Singapore. "When their acute pain symptoms were relieved, patients were finally able to rest."


5) Original Sound Compositions Reduce Anxiety in Emergency Department Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22171868

Objective:
To determine whether emergency department (ED) patients' self-rated levels of anxiety are affected by exposure to purpose-designed music or sound compositions with and without the audio frequencies of embedded binaural beat.

Design, Setting and Participants
Randomised controlled trial in an ED between 1 February 2010 and 14 April 2010 among a convenience sample of adult patients who were rated as category 3 on the Australasian Triage Scale.

Interventions
All interventions involved listening to soundtracks of 20 minutes' duration that were purpose-designed by composers and sound-recording artists. Participants were allocated at random to one of five groups: headphones and iPod only, no soundtrack (control group); reconstructed ambient noise simulating an ED but free of clear verbalisations; electroacoustic musical composition; composed non-musical soundtracks derived from audio field recordings obtained from natural and constructed settings; sound composition of audio field recordings with embedded binaural beat. All soundtracks were presented on an iPod through headphones. Patients and researchers were blinded to allocation until interventions were administered. State-trait anxiety was self-assessed before the intervention and state anxiety was self-assessed again 20 minutes after the provision of the soundtrack.

Results:
Of 291 patients assessed for eligibility, 170 patients completed the pre-intervention anxiety self-assessment and 169 completed the post-intervention assessment. Significant decreases (all P < 0.001) in anxiety level were observed among patients exposed to the electroacoustic musical composition (pre-intervention mean, 39; post-intervention mean, 34), audio field recordings (42; 35) or audio field recordings with embedded bianaural beats (43; 37) when compared with those allocated to receive simulated ED ambient noise (40; 41) or headphones only (44; 44).

Conclusion:
In moderately anxious ED patients, state anxiety was reduced by 10%-15% following exposure to purpose-designed sound interventions.

6) Music Soothes Pre-term Babies and Their Parents, and even Improves the Infants' Sleeping and Eating Patterns
by Novotney, Amy. APA, Monitor on Psychology November 13, Vol 44, No. 10
http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/11/music.aspx
(American Psychological Association)

The beep of ventilators and infusion pumps, the hiss of oxygen, the whir of carts and the murmur of voices as physicians and nurses make rounds — these are the typical noises a premature infant hears spending the first days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). While the sounds of such life-saving equipment are tough to mute, a new study suggests that some sounds, such as lullabies, may soothe pre-term babies and their parents, and even improve the infants' sleeping and eating patterns, while decreasing parents' stress (Pediatrics, 2013).

Researchers at Beth Israel Medical Center's Louis Armstrong Center for Music and Medicine conducted the study, which included 272 premature babies 32 weeks gestation or older in 11 mid-Atlantic NICUs. They examined the effects of three types of music: a lullaby selected and sung by the baby's parents; an "ocean disc," a round instrument, invented by the Remo drum company, that mimics the sounds of the womb; and a gato box, a drum-like instrument used to simulate two-tone heartbeat rhythms. The two instruments were played live by certified music therapists, who matched their music to the babies' breathing and heart rhythms.

The researchers found that the gato box, the Remo ocean disc and singing all slowed a baby's heart rate, although singing was the most effective. Singing also increased the amount of time babies stayed quietly alert, and sucking behavior improved most with the gato box, while the ocean disc enhanced sleep. The music therapy also lowered the parents' stress, says Joanne Loewy, the study's lead author, director of the Armstrong center and co-editor of the journal Music and Medicine.

"There's just something about music — particularly live music — that excites and activates the body," says Loewy, whose work is part of a growing movement of music therapists and psychologists who are investigating the use of music in medicine to help patients dealing with pain, depression and possibly even Alzheimer's disease. "Music very much has a way of enhancing quality of life and can, in addition, promote recovery."

 

Pain Management

1) Music Relieves Pain
Overall, music does have positive effects on pain management. Music can help reduce both the sensation and distress of both chronic pain and postoperative pain.

Listening to music can reduce chronic pain from a range of painful conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc problems and rheumatoid arthritis, by up to 21% and depression by up to 25%, according to a paper in the latest UK-based Journal of Advanced Nursing29.

Music therapy is increasingly used in hospitals to reduce the need for medication during childbirth, to decrease postoperative pain and complement the use of anesthesia during surgery30.

There are several theories about how music positively affects perceived pain:
1. Music produces revulsive effect
2. Music may give the patient a sense of control
3. Music causes the body to release endorphins to counteract pain
4. Slow music relaxes by slowing breathing and heartbeat

29. Siedliecki SL, Good M. Effect of music on power, pain, depression and disability. J Adv Nurs. 2006 Jun;54(5):553-62.
30. Nilsson U, Unosson M, Rawal N. Stress reduction and analgesia in patients exposed to calming music postoperatively: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2005 Feb;22(2):96-102. PubMed

2) Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy Improves Pain Management and More
Chris Boyd-Brewer, MA, FAMI Ruth McCaffrey, ARNP, ND
http://www.vibroacoustictherapy.com/documents/Vibroacoustic-Sound-Therapy-Improves-Pain-Management.pdf
Copy and Paste the link

Compelling evidence has been provided by a variety of studies that vibroacoustic music is a viable pain and symptom management tool. Benefits from vibroacoustic therapy are clearly suggested, although there appear to be many variables in the type of equipment employed, frequencies and/or music used, and session methodology. In the healthcare setting continued research is necessary to adequately determine parameters of optimal vibroacoustic use.

As the authors point out: no single explanation can prove positive effects from the use of vibroacoustic music in health practices. When considering how and why vibroacoustic therapy works, it is important to recognize that effectiveness may come from both physical and mental stimulation. It may be that the synergy of the two, the mind-body connection, makes this methodology successful in relaxation and pain reduction.

The article summarizes three possible explanations for the positive effects of vibroacoustic therapy:
1. Vibroacoustic music sessions trigger the relaxation response with benefits for pain and symptom reduction as well as tension, fatigue, headache, nausea, and depression.
2. Stimulation of the Pacinian corpuscle at frequencies between 60 Hz and 600 Hz creates neuronal inhibition of pain.
3. Vibration may assist in cellular cleansing mechanisms with possible positive effects on health and illness.

Research has indicated that positive effects for pain relief using vibration technology are more effective over large areas of the body, and pain relief is more significant when applied in close proximity to where the pain is experienced.


3) Vibroacoustic Treatments for Parkinson’s Patients Lessens or Eradicates Symptoms
Abstract
Objectives
The objectives of this study were to gather preliminary data on psychological and physiologic effects of a 20 minute vibroacoustic treatment. The treatment included 4 components of interest:

1. The Music – Heart opening and powerful
2. Binaural Beats – the music includes both theta and delta frequencies tuned to the music.
3. Sound Chair - The subjects were on a powerful sound chair with 4 bass transducers vibrating the body.
4. Rotating Chair - The sound chair rotates (so the subjects go a bit on their side, then on their back, then upright), activating the vestibular system in the subjects.

Subjects:
12 adults with varying degrees of symptoms and medication participated in the study.

Intervention:
Participants listened to a CD with theta delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies for 20 minutes on the rotating sound chair.

Results:
Subjects filled out a form with information on their symptoms on a scale of 1-10 (10 being the most severe). Upon completion the subjects again rated their symptoms. The symptoms were reduced on average from 8 to 2. 50% of the subjects had their symptoms reduced to 0. One subject had their symptoms from 8 – 6. Subjects were contacted the following day. 30% of the subjects still had some level of symptom reduction. Three subjects reported that they slept well for the first time in over a year.

Conclusions:
The particular music, binaural beats, and rotating sound chair are extremely effective in reducing symptoms. More research is needed to pin point which of the four parameters is the most effective, or if the effect is as a result of the combination of parameters.


4) Music and Vibration Therapy as Clinical Intervention for Physiologic Functional Adaptation
Berger, Dorita S. and Schneck, Daniel J. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 687-703, 2003
http://www.academia.edu/4340349/The_Use_of_Music_Therapy_as_a_Clinical_Intervention_for_Physiologic_Functional_Adaptation

To summarize, we suggest that music has the ability to alter fear and stress responses by re-setting homeostatic set-points precisely because music elements synergize with physiologic function and can therefore alter homeostatic set-points to derive positive results. As a medical intervention, music therapy impacts upon stress and fear responses in a manner resulting in stress and pain management, language and cognition, memory, attention, functional motorplanning (praxis), auditory tracking, figure-ground awareness, depth perception, sound location, auditory/visual integration, auditory and motor coordination, proprioception, vestibular and tactile stimulation, and many other areas of human function.

5) Reducing Blood Pressure
By playing recordings of relaxing music every morning and evening, people with high blood pressure can train themselves to lower their blood pressure - and keep it low31. According to research reported at the American Society of Hypertension meeting in New Orleans, listening to just 30 minutes of classical, Celtic or raga music every day may significantly reduce high blood pressure.

31. Teng XF, Wong MY, Zhang YT. The effect of music on hypertensive patients. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:4649-51 PubMed

6) Medicine for the Heart
Music is good for your heart. Research shows that it is musical tempo, rather than style. Italian and British researchers32 recruited young men and women, half of whom were trained musicians. The participants slipped on head phones and listened to six styles of music, including rap and classical pieces, with random two-minute pauses. As the participants kicked back and listened, the researchers monitored their breathing, heart rates and blood pressure. The participants had faster heart and breathing rates when they listened to lively music. When the musical slowed, so did their heart and breathing rates. Some results were surprising. During the musical pauses, heart and breathing rates normalized or reached more optimal levels. Whether or not a person liked the style of music did not matter. The tempo, or pace, of the music had the greatest effect on relaxation.

32. Bernardi L, Porta C, Sleight P. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non-musicians: the importance of silence. Heart. 2006 Apr;92(4):445-52. PubMed

7) Speeds Post-Stroke Recovery
A daily portion of one's favorite pop melodies, classical music or jazz can speed recovery from debilitating strokes, according to the latest research. When stroke patients in Finland listened to music for a couple of hours each day, verbal memory and attention span improved significantly compared to patients who received no musical stimulation, or who listened only to stories read out loud, the study reports33.

Recent research has shown that music listening after stroke not only promotes behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain40.

33. Sarkamo T, Tervaniemi M, Laitinen S, Forsblom A, Soinila S, Mikkonen M, Autti T, Silvennoinen HM, Erkkila J, Laine M, Peretz I, Hietanen M. Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke. Brain. 2008 Mar;131(Pt 3):866-76. PubMed

40. Särkämö T, Ripollés P, Vepsäläinen H, Autti T, Silvennoinen HM, Salli E, Laitinen S, Forsblom A, Soinila S, Rodríguez-Fornells A. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Apr 17;8:245. PubMed

8) Chronic Headaches & Migraine Remedy
Music can help migraine34 and chronic headache35 sufferers reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of the headaches.

34. Oelkers-Ax R, Leins A, Parzer P, Hillecke T, Bolay HV, Fischer J, Bender S, Hermanns U, Resch F. Butterbur root extract and music therapy in the prevention of childhood migraine: an explorative study. Eur J Pain. 2008 Apr;12(3):301-13. PubMed

35. Risch M, Scherg H, Verres R. [Music therapy for chronic headaches. Evaluation of music therapeutic groups for patients suffering from chronic headaches. Schmerz. 2001 Apr;15(2):116-25. German. PubMed

9) Chronic Headaches & Migraine Treatments
We currently have a CD for headaches being used at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston that uses incorporates binaural beats with a difference frequency of 1.45 hertz. We also have tuning forks tuned to the same frequencies that have been quite effective for getting rid of headaches for our students.

10) Anti-seizure Remedy
The latest 2014 study revealed that listening to Mozart K 448 (Sonata for Two Pianos in D major) reduced the seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children epilepsy36. The antiepileptic effect of Mozart's sonata has been earlier demonstrated by Taiwanese scientists37.

36. Lin LC, Lee MW, Wei RC, Mok HK, Yang RC. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jan 13;14:17. PubMed

37. Lin LC, Lee WT, Wu HC, Tsai CL, Wei RC, Mok HK, Weng CF, Lee MW, Yang RC. The long-term effect of listening to Mozart K.448 decreases epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 Aug;21(4):420-4. PubMed

11) Postpartum Well-being
Using music therapy during childbirth decreased post-natal anxiety and pain, increases the satisfaction with childbirth and reduces the likelihood of postpartum depression38.

38. Simavli S, Kaygusuz I, Gumus I, Usluogullar? B, Yildirim M, Kafali H. Effect of music therapy during vaginal delivery on postpartum pain relief and mental health. J Affect Disord. 2014 Mar;156:194-9. PubMed

12) Tinnitus
Music therapy in an early stage of tinnitus can prevent tinnitus from becoming a chronic condition39.

39. Grapp M, Hutter E, Argstatter H, Plinkert PK, Bolay HV. Music therapy as an early intervention to prevent chronification of tinnitus. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2013 Aug 1;6(7):589-93. PubMed

13) Tinnitus Treatment
AudioNotch.com claims they have an effective treatment using sound for Tinnitus. We also have a treatment with do with sound for Tinnitus at the Institute that has been quite successful.

 

Music for Learning, Intelligence, Memory and Sleep Enhancement

1) Music Enhances Intelligence, Learning and IQ
The idea that music makes you smarter received considerable attention from scientists and the media. Listening to music or playing an instrument can actually make you learn better. And research confirms this.

Music has the power to enhance some kinds of higher brain function:
Reading and literacy skills11-13
Spatial-temporal reasoning14-15
Mathematical abilities16-17 - Even children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder benefit in mathematics tests from listening to music beforehand.
Emotional intelligence

11. Besson M, Schon D, Moreno S, Santos A, Magne C. Influence of musical expertise and musical training on pitch processing in music and language. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007;25(3-4):399-410.PubMed

12. Register D. The effects of an early intervention music curriculum on prereading/writing. J Music Ther. 2001 Fall;38(3):239-48. PubMed

13. Overy K. Dyslexia and music. From timing deficits to musical intervention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov;999:497-505. PubMed

14. Spatial-Temporal Task Performance Jausovec N, Jausovec K, Gerlic I. The influence of Mozart's music on brain activity in the process of learning. Jausovec N, Jausovec K, Gerlic I. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Dec;117(12):2703-14. PubMed

15. Sarnthein J, vonStein A, Rappelsberger P, Petsche H, Rauscher FH, Shaw GL. Persistent patterns of brain activity: an EEG coherence studyof the positive effect of music on spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurol Res. 1997 Apr;19(2):107-16. PubMed

16. Schmithorst VJ, Holland SK. The effect of musical training on the neural correlates of math processing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jan 16;354(3):193-6. PubMed

17. Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Levine LJ, Wright EL, Dennis WR, Newcomb RL. Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children's spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurol Res. 1997 Feb;19(1):2-8. PubMed

2) The Mozart Effect
Earlier it has been thought that listening to classical music, particularly Mozart, enhances performance on cognitive tests. However, recent findings18 show that listening to any music that is personally enjoyable has positive effects on cognition.

18. Schellenberg EG, Hallam S. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Dec;1060:202-9. PubMed


3) Music Improves Memory Performance
The power of music to affect memory is quite intriguing. Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activates the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, cause the brain to be more capable of processing information.

Listening to music facilitates the recall of information19. Researchers have shown that certain types of music are a great "keys" for recalling memories. Information learned while listening to a particular song can often be recalled simply by "playing" the songs mentally.

Musical training has even better effect than just listening to classical music. There is clear evidence20, that children who take music lessons develop a better memory compared with children who have no musical training.

Note: For learning or memory performance, it's important that music doesn't have a vocal component; otherwise you're more likely to remember the words of the background song than what you're supposed to be recalling.

19. Mammarella N, Fairfield B, Cornoldi C. Does music enhance cognitive performance in healthy older adults? The Vivaldi effect. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007 Oct;19(5):394-9. PubMed

20. Ho YC, Cheung MC, Chan AS. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology. 2003 Jul;17(3):439-50. PubMed

4) Music Improves Concentration and Attention
Easy listening music or relaxing classics improves the duration and intensity of concentration in all age groups and ability levels. It's not clear what type of music is better, or what kind of musical structure is necessary to help, but many studies have shown significant effects21.

21. Patston LL, Hogg SL, Tippett LJ. Attention in musicians is more bilateral than in non-musicians. Laterality. 2007 May;12(3):262-72. PubMed

5) Relaxing Music Induces Sleep
Relaxing classical music is safe, cheap and easy way to beat insomnia1. Many people who suffer from insomnia find that Bach music helps them. Researchers have shown that just 45 minutes of relaxing music before bedtime can make for a restful night2.

Relaxing music reduces sympathetic nervous system activity, decreases anxiety, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate and may have positive effects on sleep via muscle relaxation and distraction from thoughts.

2. Lai HL, Good M. Music improves sleep quality in older adults. J Adv Nurs. 2005 Feb;49(3):234-44.

Binaural Beats for ADD, ADHD for Learning, Intelligence, Memory and Sleep Enhancement

1) Acoustic Brainwave Entrainment with Binaural Beats
Dr. Jeffrey D. Thompson, D.C., B.F.A.
http://www.neuroacoustic.com/entrainment.html

This is an important article on the history and research on binaural beats with many references to papers and studies.


2) A Pilot Study of EEG Entrainment As a Sleep Aid
Dr. Jeffrey D. Thompson, D.C., B.F.A.
http://www.neuroacoustic.com/pilotstudy.html

Introduction
An interest in the effectiveness of audio-stimulation in entraining the EEG to desired frequencies has developed in recent years
1. The use of EEG entrainment as a therapeutic intervention for such disorders as bruxism2, myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome2 and for stroke rehabilitation3 has proven beneficial. It was hypothesized that audio-stimulation may be used as a sleep aid for insomniacs. More specifically, audio-stimulation may be used to entrain the EEG of poor sleepers to demonstrate a higher incidence of the delta bandwidth thus increasing the quality of sleep.

Method
Eight chronic insomniacs without clinically significant sleep apnea and PLMs were polysomnographically monitored during their normal sleep phase. Audio-stimulation in the form of music was presented through two loud-speakers placed laterally, beside the head, and 45 cm from each ear. The volume of the music was set such that it did not exceed 60 decibels for more than 3 seconds since the mean subjective awakening threshold throughout sleep for psychophysiological insomniacs is 76.8 +/- 9.2 decibels4. The music employed as audio-stimulation was designed by Dr. J. Thompson5, to increase the incidence of delta EEG (0.5 - 3.99 Hz). The music was track #2 from the Brainwave Suite™ package, featured on CD #4 and was 20 minutes long. According to Thompson5, the music employs stereophonics to deliver two different frequency bandwidths to each ear and EEG entrainment should only occur when the music is presented stereophonically and not monophonically. Music was presented to participants stereophonically for 15 minutes at one minute after the appearance of the first sleep spindle indicating stage two sleep and this was directly followed by five minutes of monophonic music. During their second entrance to stage two sleep, five of the eight participants were exposed to a second presentation of music.

The second entrance of stage two was separated from the first episode of stage two sleep by at least three minutes of any other stage of sleep or by one minute of wakefulness. This presentation was also at one minute after the first sleep spindle and began with five minutes of monophonic music followed directly by 15 minutes of stereophonic music. The EEG was sampled for one minute, three times during each presentation and analyzed using period amplitude analysis6. During the first presentation the EEG was sampled one minute prior to presenting the music, at 10 min and 30s into the stereophonic music and during the last minute of monophonic music. During the second presentation of the music the EEG was sampled one minute prior to presenting the music, at four minutes into the monophonic music and again during the last minute of stereophonic music. Subjective ratings of sleep quality were also obtained from each subject. Subjects indicated whether they heard the music and whether they found the music pleasant or aversive. The quality of sleep was rated on a scale of 1(poor), 5.5(moderate) to 10(excellent). The quality of sleep in comparison to the quality of the last week's sleep was rated on a scale of 1(worse), 5.5 (same) to 10 (much better).

Results
Three repeated measures ANOVAs, full-wave, half-wave and first derivative analyses, comparing the incidence of the delta bandwidth were performed on each set of three EEG samples. No significant differences were found in the incidences of delta during the first presentation of the music. The full-wave ANOVA of the data from the second presentation demonstrated a significant difference (F(4, 10)=7.762, p=.0134). Post-hoc Scheffe analyses revealed that (1) the incidence of delta during the monophonic music (mean=55.4%) was greater than that found prior to the presentation of the monophonic music (mean=39.6%) (F(4, 10)=6.483, p<.05) and (2) that the incidence of delta during the stereophonic music (mean=53.6%) (F(4, 10)=5.073, p<.05) was greater than that found prior to the presentation of the monophonic music (39.6%). The half-wave ANOVA of the data from the second presentation also demonstrated a significant difference (F(4, 10)=21.112), p=.0006. This post-hoc Scheffe analyses supported the post-hoc full-wave analyses, (1) the incidence of delta during the monophonic music (mean=60.3%) was greater than the incidence of delta before the presentation of the monophonic music (mean=47.4%) (F(4, 10)=15.265, p<.05) and (2) the incidence of delta during the stereophonic music (mean=60.9%) (F(4, 10)=16.383, p<.05) was greater than the incidence of delta prior to the presentation of the monophonic music (mean=39.6%). The first derivative ANOVA did not demonstrate any significant differences. Results of the subjective ratings indicate that all but one of the eight participants heard the music and all but two of the participants found the music pleasant. The mean quality of sleep was 7.5 (range: 7-10) and the mean quality of sleep comparison rating was 6.39 (range: 5-8).

Discussion
Our results indicate that delta EEG entrainment occurred as a result of the music being presented during sleep. The entrainment response was not stereophonic specific, it occurred with the monophonic and stereophonic music. Significant increases in the incidence of delta in the EEG were found only in the data recorded during the second presentation of the music. This increase in delta during the second music presentation was not confounded with the passage of time nor was it confounded with naturally occurring increases in delta associated with deep sleep; there were no differences between the incidences of delta during the monophonic and the stereophonic music. The lack of any significant differences in the data recorded during the first presentation of the music suggests that the EEG of the first transition from wakefulness to sleep is less malleable perhaps due to higher levels of cortical activity inhibiting relaxation. The subjective rating of a higher than moderate sleep quality, coupled with the slightly better than last week's sleep quality rating seem to suggest that participants found the music beneficial in enhancing sleep quality.

3) Article - Epsilon, Gamma, HyperGamma, Lambda Brainwave Activity and Ecstatic States of Consciousness
Dr. Jeffrey D. Thompson, D.C., B.F.A.
http://www.neuroacoustic.com/epsilon.html

Brain mapping research studies into different brainwave patterns associated with different states of consciousness has been carried out in major centers throughout the country. The normal range of brainwave frequency activity in the cortex neurons has traditionally been from 0.5 Hz Delta to 30.0 Hz Beta. Most of the early brainwave research was concerned with sleep studies. From these studies, it became accepted brainwave nomenclature to associate Beta activity with externally directed linear thinking mental activity, Alpha activity with internally directed non-linear mental activity, Theta with dreaming sleep, emotional elements and experiences and Delta with the deepest and most physically restorative portion of sleep.

In non-sleeping states, these brainwave patterns are associated with various states of "waking" consciousness. High levels of Beta are associated with high levels of focus and concentration, Alpha is associated with inner mental "pondering," Theta with original, creative inspiration, problem solving, visualization and Delta with deep physical relaxation.

In meditation studies, Alpha brain states are associated with a typical "Zen" meditation, in which the attention is in a state of "open focus." In this state, one's attention is directed to everything simultaneously. Theta brain states are associated with out of body or astral forms of mediation. In these states, one usually experiences seeing the guru, experiencing places of beauty or peace, and sometimes receiving great spiritual insights with associated visions and sounds. These Theta states are also associated with the classic Shamanic "journeying" experiences. Delta mediation states are associated with being in the void or "white light" states. These states are timeless, formless and linked to states of suspended animation. Deep-level Yogic adepts can slow respiration and heart beat to be virtually undetectable.

Studies here at the Center for Neuroacoustic Research have shown clear and repeated evidence, in patients, of brainwave frequency patterns below the traditionally accepted lowest Delta rhythms of 0.5 Hz. This would be brainwave activity as slow as one quarter cycle per second, one frequency per 10 seconds, per one minute, or even longer. Indications of ultra-slow frequencies are evident on the EEG traces of certain patients experiencing extraordinary states of consciousness. These states seem to be associated with very high states of meditation, ecstatic states of consciousness, high-level inspiration states, spiritual insight and out-of-body experiences. Some of the higher Yogic states of suspended animation associated with deepest Delta brain states actually continue deeper into these below-Delta brainwave states, which we are calling the Epsilon State (Epsilon, since it is the next Greek letter of the alphabet after Delta).

In order to explore these deeper extraordinary states of consciousness associated with Epsilon brainwave patterns, we have had to use traditional EEG equipment in unique ways and to initiate the design of specialized EEG equipment to measure frequencies this slow. Most regular EEG equipment is not set up to measure frequencies below 0.5 Hz.

We have also noticed that whenever there are extraordinary meditation states present, brainwave electrical activity between the right/left hemispheres tends to synchronize. This synchronization of the cerebral hemispheres seems to only happen in special circumstances of consciousness - the "aha" state, the moment when the answer to a problem occurs, creative inspiration, great insight and moments of awareness of one's own existence.

There have also been reports in the EEG literature from other researchers, that there is evidence of extraordinary states of consciousness associated with higher-than-Beta brainwave activity. These brainwave patterns go from 40 Hz and above - in some cases, as high as 100 Hz or more. The 40 Hz higher-than-Beta activity is now an accepted brainwave state in EEG nomenclature being referred to as "Gamma" brainwaves. We are calling brainwave frequency patterns significantly higher than 40 Hz "Hyper-Gamma" brainwave states. More recently, there have been reports by EEG researchers of ecstatic states of consciousness associated with brainwave frequencies of 200 Hz, we are calling these frequencies "Lambda" brainwave states.

Early evidence of the 40 Hz EEG brain activity from the Neuroscience Unit at the University of Birmingham has shown these frequencies to be associated with higher levels of brain organization "binding" information from all the senses together for a higher-level awareness of unity of the objects of our perception. Gamma rhythms also seem to be associated exclusively with higher mental activity, including perception and consciousness. - since Gamma activity disappears with general anesthesia. There is also evidence that Gamma frequencies appearing in different areas of the cortex synchronize themselves together in a more holographic manner during these extraordinary states of consciousness associated with "Shamanic" and "Mystical" experience.

The states of consciousness that appear to be associated with HyperGamma brainwave activity (at 100 Hz) and Lambda brainwave activity (at 200 Hz) seem to be described in exactly the same terms as we have been describing our discovery of Epsilon (below 0.5 Hz) over the years. It has seemed extraordinary that different groups of EEG researchers, independent of one another, should find the same states of consciousness associated with such divergent brainwave activity - below 0.5 Hz Delta to above 100 Hz HyperGamma to 200 Hz Lambda.

There seems to be a circular link between these two extremes of brainwave activity and the states of consciousness, which they represent. They appear to be associated with the type of extraordinary states of consciousness we find in the highest states of meditation, deepest levels of insight, personal original creative problem solving and high degrees of Self-awareness. We have surmised that these extremely slow Epsilon brainwave patterns might have extremely fast HyperGamma/Lambda brainwave patterns modulating within them - just as the Hyper-Gamma/Lambda brainwave patterns are "riding" on a super slow Epsilon modulation.

4) Accessing Anomalous States of Consciousness with a Binaural Beat Technology
ATWATER F. HOLMES
The Monroe Institute, 62 Roberts Mountain Roud, Fuber, VA 22938-231 7
http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_11_3_atwater.pdf
(Might have to copy and paste the link for it to work)

Abstract
Exposure to binaural beats in an environment of restricted stimulation coupled with a guidance process can safely provide access to and experiences in many propitious states of consciousness. This method requires a unique combination of well-understood psycho-physiological inductive techniques with the addition of a refined binaural-beat technology. Binaural beats provide potential consciousness-altering information to the brain's reticular activating system. The reticular activating system in turn interprets and reacts to this information by stimulating the thalamus and cortex -- thereby altering arousal states, attentional focus, and the level of awareness, i.e., the elements of consciousness itself. This effective binaural-beat process offers a wide variety of beneficial applications and vehicle for the exploration of expanded states of consciousness.

Summary
The binaural-beat auditory-guidance process provides access to many beneficial mind-consciousness states. This process is a unique combination of well-understood psycho-physiological inductive techniques (restricted environmental stimulation, controlled breathing, progressive relaxation, affinnation, visualization, etc.) with the addition of a refined binaural-beat technology providing potential consciousness-altering information to the brain's reticular activating system. This safe and effective binaural-beat process offers a wide variety of applications which include, but are not limited to: relaxation, meditation, enhanced creativity, intuition development, enriched learning, improved sleep, wellness, and the exploration of expanded mind-consciousness


5) Auditory Driving of the Autonomic Nervous System: Listening to Theta-frequency Binaural Beats post-exercise Increases Parasympathetic Activation and Sympathetic Withdrawal.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25452734

Abstract
Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

6) Analysis of EEG Activity in Response to Binaural Beats with Different Frequencies.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448376

Abstract
When two coherent sounds with nearly similar frequencies are presented to each ear respectively with stereo headphones, the brain integrates the two signals and produces a sensation of a third sound called binaural beat (BB). Although earlier studies showed that BB could influence behavior and cognition, common agreement on the mechanism of BB has not been reached yet. In this work, we employed Relative Power (RP), Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Cross-Mutual Information (CMI) to track EEG changes during BB stimulations. EEG signals were acquired from 13 healthy subjects. Five-minute BBs with four different frequencies were tested: delta band (1Hz), theta band (5Hz), alpha band (10Hz) and beta band (20Hz). We observed RP increase in theta and alpha bands and decrease in beta band during delta and alpha BB stimulations. RP decreased in beta band during theta BB, while RP decreased in theta band during beta BB. However, no clear brainwave entrainment effect was identified. Connectivity changes were detected following the variation of RP during BB stimulations. Our observation supports the hypothesis that BBs could affect functional brain connectivity, suggesting that the mechanism of BB-brain interaction is worth further study.

7) Intracranial Electroencephalography Power and Phase Synchronization Changes During Monaural and Binaural Beat Stimulation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25345689

Abstract
Auditory stimulation with monaural or binaural auditory beats (i.e. sine waves with nearby frequencies presented either to both ears or to each ear separately) represents a non-invasive approach to influence electrical brain activity. It is still unclear exactly which brain sites are affected by beat stimulation. In particular, an impact of beat stimulation on mediotemporal brain areas could possibly provide new options for memory enhancement or seizure control. Therefore, we examined how electroencephalography (EEG) power and phase synchronization are modulated by auditory stimulation with beat frequencies corresponding to dominant EEG rhythms based on intracranial recordings in presurgical epilepsy patients. Monaural and binaural beat stimuli with beat frequencies of 5, 10, 40 and 80 Hz and non-superposed control signals were administered with low amplitudes (60 dB SPL) and for short durations (5 s). EEG power was intracranially recorded from mediotemporal, temporo-basal and temporo-lateral and surface sites. Evoked and total EEG power and phase synchronization during beat vs. control stimulation were compared by the use of Bonferroni-corrected non-parametric label-permutation tests. We found that power and phase synchronization were significantly modulated by beat stimulation not only at temporo-basal, temporo-lateral and surface sites, but also at mediotemporal sites. Generally, more significant decreases than increases were observed. The most prominent power increases were seen after stimulation with monaural 40-Hz beats. The most pronounced power and synchronization decreases resulted from stimulation with monaural 5-Hz and binaural 80-Hz beats. Our results suggest that beat stimulation offers a non-invasive approach for the modulation of intracranial EEG characteristics.

8) Binaural Beat Technology in Humans: A Pilot Study to Assess Psychological and Physiologic Effects.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17309374

Abstract
Introduction:
Binaural beat technology (BBT) products are sold internationally as personal development and health improvement tools. Producers suggest benefit from regular listening to binaural beats including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased focus, concentration, motivation, confidence, and depth in meditation. Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses that originate in the superior olivary nucleus as a result of different frequency auditory stimuli provided to each ear. Listeners to binaural beat "hear" a beat at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the applied tones.

Objectives
The objectives of this pilot study were to gather preliminary data on psychologic and physiologic effects of 60 days daily use of BBT for hypothesis generation and to assess compliance, feasibility, and safety for future studies.

Subjects:
Eight healthy adults participated in the study.

Intervention:
Participants listened to a CD with delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies daily for 60 days.

Outcome Measures
Psychologic and physiological data were collected before and after a 60-day intervention. PSYCHOLOGIC: Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-2), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), mood (Profile of Mood States), absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and quality of Life (World Health Organization-Quality of Life Inventory). PHYSIOLOGICAL: Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, weight, blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Results:
There was a decrease in trait anxiety (p = 0.004), an increase in quality of life (p = 0.03), and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (p = 0.01) and dopamine (p = 0.02) observed between pre- and postintervention measurements.

Conclusions:
Binaural beat technology may exhibit positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. Further research is warranted to explore the effects on anxiety using a larger, randomized and controlled trial.

9) Binaural Auditory Beats Affect Vigilance Performance and Mood.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9423966

Abstract
When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.

Music for Learning Disabilities and Psychological Issues Including Depression


1) Music Improves Mood and Decreases Depression
Music's ability to "heal the soul" is the stuff of legend in every culture. Many people find that music lifts their spirits. Modern research tends to confirm music's psychotherapeutic benefits5. Bright, cheerful music (e.g. Mozart, Vivaldi, bluegrass, Klezmer, Salsa, reggae) is the most obvious prescription for the blues.

5. Maratos AS, Gold C, Wang X, Crawford MJ. Music therapy for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD004517. Review. PubMed


2) Music and Vibration Therapy as Clinical Intervention for Physiologic Functional Adaptation
Berger, Dorita S. and Schneck, Daniel J. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 687-703, 2003
http://www.academia.edu/4340349/The_Use_of_Music_Therapy_as_a_Clinical_Intervention_for_Physiologic_Functional_Adaptation

To summarize, we suggest that music has the ability to alter fear and stress responses by re-setting homeostatic set-points precisely because music elements synergize with physiologic function and can therefore alter homeostatic set-points to derive positive results. As a medical intervention, music therapy impacts upon stress and fear responses in a manner resulting in stress and pain management, language and cognition, memory, attention, functional motorplanning (praxis), auditory tracking, figure-ground awareness, depth perception, sound location, auditory/visual integration, auditory and motor coordination, proprioception, vestibular and tactile stimulation, and many other areas of human function.

3) Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy: Case Studies with Children with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties and the Elderly in Long-term Residential Care.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15747903

Abstract
This paper describes the development of Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy, an approach which is being developed for use in special schools for children with profound and multiple learning difficulties, and in long-term care homes for the elderly and the elderly mentally infirm. Using non-invasive techniques and music/sound technology, children and the elderly are being empowered and enabled to (re)discover self expression and communication skills. Two case studies drawn from the world of the young disabled, and from the elderly, illustrate the potential for improving quality of life and well-being in these institutional settings.

4) Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities
http://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/effects-of-vibroacoustic-music-on-challenging-behaviors/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750946708000895

Abstract:
Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. The participants were randomized into two groups in a randomized controlled trial evaluation. The first group received 10 - 20 min sessions with vibroacoustic music treatment for 5 weeks. Then the second group received the same treatment during the next 5 weeks. Behavior was assessed using the Behavior Problems

Inventory in all participants before the treatment, after the first group had completed their treatment, and again after the second group had completed their treatment. In order to evaluate each session, the accompanying assistants assessed behavior on different scales after each session. In addition, the sessions were videotaped and analyzed minute by minute for challenging behaviors. The results revealed that vibroacoustic music reduced self-injurious, stereotypic, and aggressive destructive behaviors in the participants. In addition, the results indicated that the effect of vibroacoustic music was to some extent dependent on the participants’ diagnosis. Implications for vibroacoustic music theory and practice are discussed.

Performance and Productivity

1) Music Improves Athletic Performance
Choosing music that motivates you will make it easier to start moving, walking, dancing, or any other type of exercise that you enjoy. Music can make exercise feel more like recreation and less like work. Furthermore, music enhances athletic performance6-8! Anyone who has ever gone on a long run with their iPod or taken a particularly energetic spinning class knows that music can make the time pass more quickly.

The four central hypotheses explaining music's facilitation of exercise performance include:
• Reduction in the feeling of fatigue
• Increase in levels of psychological arousal
• Physiological relaxation response
• Improvement in motor coordination

6. Simpson SD, Karageorghis CI. The effects of synchronous music on 400-m sprint performance. J Sports Sci. 2006 Oct;24(10):1095-102. PubMed

7. Edworthy J, Waring H. The effects of music tempo and loudness level on treadmill exercise. Ergonomics. 2006 Dec 15;49(15):1597 610. PubMed

8. Copeland BL, Franks BD. Effects of types and intensities of background music on treadmill endurance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1991 Mar;31(1):100-3. PubMed

2) Music Improves Body Movement and Coordination
Music reduces muscle tension and improves body movement and coordination25-26. Music may play an important role in developing, maintaining and restoring physical functioning in the rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders.

25. Bernatzky G, Bernatzky P, Hesse HP, Staffen W, Ladurner G. Stimulating music increases motor coordination in patients afflicted with Morbus Parkinson. Neurosci Lett. 2004 May 6;361(1-3):4-8. PubMed

26. Rosenkranz K, Williamon A, Rothwell JC. Motorcortical excitability and synaptic plasticity is enhanced in professional musicians. J Neurosci. 2007 May 9;27(19):5200-6. PubMed


3) Music Fights Fatigue
Listening to upbeat music can be a great way to find some extra energy. Music can effectively eliminate exercise-induced fatigue9 and fatigue symptoms caused by monotonous work10.

Keep in mind that listening to too much pop and hard rock music can make you more jittery than energized. Vary what you listen to and find out what type of music is most beneficial for you. You could try classical music one day, pop the next day and jazz the third.

9. Jing L, Xudong W. Evaluation on the effects of relaxing music on the recovery from aerobic exercise-induced fatigue. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Mar;48(1):102-6. PubMed

10. Ladenberger-Leo E. Effect of music on the general feeling of persons performing monotonous work. Med Pr. 1986;37(6):347-52. PubMed

4) Music Improves Productivity
Many people like to listen to music while they work and I am certainly one of them. How about you? Did you know you can perform better at your work with music? Whilst there may be many reasons for wishing to listen to music in the workplace, it really improves your productivity27!

According to a report in the journal Neuroscience of Behavior and Physiology28, a person's ability to recognize visual images, including letters and numbers, is faster when either rock or classical music is playing in the background.

27. Fox JG, Embrey ED. Music - an aid to productivity. Appl Ergon. 1972 Dec;3(4):202-5. PubMed

28. Pavlygina RA, Frolov MV, Davydov VI, Milovanova GB, Sulimov AV. Recognition of visual images in a rich sensory environment: musical accompaniment. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1999 Mar-Apr;29(2):197-204. PubMed

5) Music and Vibration Therapy as Clinical Intervention for Physiologic Functional Adaptation
Berger, Dorita S. and Schneck, Daniel J. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 687-703, 2003
http://www.academia.edu/4340349/The_Use_of_Music_Therapy_as_a_Clinical_Intervention_for_Physiologic_Functional_Adaptation

To summarize, we suggest that music has the ability to alter fear and stress responses by re-setting homeostatic set-points precisely because music elements synergize with physiologic function and can therefore alter homeostatic set-points to derive positive results. As a medical intervention, music therapy impacts upon stress and fear responses in a manner resulting in stress and pain management, language and cognition, memory, attention, functional motorplanning (praxis), auditory tracking, figure-ground awareness, depth perception, sound location, auditory/visual integration, auditory and motor coordination, proprioception, vestibular and tactile stimulation, and many other areas of human function.

6) Binaural Beat Technology in Humans: A Pilot Study to Assess Psychological and Physiologic Effects.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17309374

Abstract
Introduction:
Binaural beat technology (BBT) products are sold internationally as personal development and health improvement tools. Producers suggest benefit from regular listening to binaural beats including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased focus, concentration, motivation, confidence, and depth in meditation. Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses that originate in the superior olivary nucleus as a result of different frequency auditory stimuli provided to each ear. Listeners to binaural beat "hear" a beat at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the applied tones.

Objectives
The objectives of this pilot study were to gather preliminary data on psychologic and physiologic effects of 60 days daily use of BBT for hypothesis generation and to assess compliance, feasibility, and safety for future studies.

Subjects:
Eight healthy adults participated in the study.

Intervention:
Participants listened to a CD with delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies daily for 60 days.

Outcome Measures
Psychologic and physiological data were collected before and after a 60-day intervention. PSYCHOLOGIC: Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-2), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), mood (Profile of Mood States), absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and quality of Life (World Health Organization-Quality of Life Inventory). PHYSIOLOGICAL: Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, weight, blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Results:
There was a decrease in trait anxiety (p = 0.004), an increase in quality of life (p = 0.03), and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (p = 0.01) and dopamine (p = 0.02) observed between pre- and postintervention measurements.

Conclusions:
Binaural beat technology may exhibit positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. Further research is warranted to explore the effects on anxiety using a larger, randomized and controlled trial.

7) Binaural Auditory Beats Affect Vigilance Performance and Mood.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9423966

Abstract
When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.

8) Music Can Enhance Exercise-induced Sympathetic Dominancy Assessed by Heart Rate Variability.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

Abstract
Many studies have been conducted on physiological responses of music, yielding controversial results. In the present study, we examined whether music affects the exercise-induced changes in the autonomic nervous system activity in twelve healthy female college students. On the first day, the subjects were asked to rest, exercise, and then rest for 15 min, respectively. On the second day, they were asked to rest with music, exercise, and then rest with music for 15 min, respectively. Heart rate variability was measured for the pre- and post-exercise periods. Music was given according to subjects' preferences using a vibroacoustic apparatus (body sonic system), i.e. a chair on which subjects laid and felt low-pitch sounds by their body in addition to listening music. With music, ratio of low frequency to high frequency component of heart rate variability (LH/HF) was significantly increased after exercise as compared with before exercise (p < 0.01). By contrast, the changes in LH/HF were not significant without music (p > 0.05). It is suggested that after exercise in which sympathetic nerve activity is dominant, preferred music synchronizes with the activated physical response, further promoting the response and increasing sympathetic nerve activity. Combining music with exercise is therefore not only enjoyable in terms of mood but also may promote physiological excitation and enhance physical activation.

9) Effects of Music During Exercise on RPE, Heart rate and the Autonomic Nervous System.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16998447

Abstract
Aim:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the influence of music on RPE during sub-maximal exercise and on the autonomic nervous system before and after sub-maximal exercise.

Methods:
Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and rates of physical fatigue (RPE) during exercise at 60% and at 40% VO2max with and without music were measured. The exercise protocol consisted of a 30-min seated rest (control) period followed by a 30-min submaximal cycling exercise and a 35-min recovery period. Autonomic-nervous activity was measured before and after exercise. During exercise, RPE was recorded every 3 min and HR was recorded for every minute.

Results:
Although RPE did not differ during exercise at 60% VO2max, this value was lower during exercise at 40% VO2max in the presence, than in the absence of a favorite piece music (P < 0.05). HR, HFA and LFA/HFA of HRV significantly differed with exercise intensity in the absence (P < 0.05), but not in the presence of music.

Conclusions:
These findings suggested that music evokes a ''distraction effect'' during low intensity exercise, but might not influence the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, when jogging or walking at comparatively low exercise intensity, listening to a favorite piece of music might decrease the influence of stress caused by fatigue, thus increasing the ''comfort'' level of performing the exercise.

10) Music Enhances Performance and Perceived Enjoyment of Sprint Interval Exercise.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25202850?log$=activity

Abstract
Introduction:
Interval exercise training can elicit physiological adaptations similar to traditional endurance training, but in reduced time. However, the intense nature of specific protocols, particularly the "all out" efforts characteristic of sprint interval training (SIT), may be perceived as being aversive. The purpose of this study was to determine if listening to self-selected music can reduce the potential aversiveness of an acute session of SIT by improving affect, motivation and enjoyment, and to examine the effects of music on performance.

Methods:
Twenty moderately active adults (22±4 y), unfamiliar with interval exercise, completed an acute session of SIT under two different conditions: music and no music. The exercise consisted of four, 30-second "all-out" Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) bouts on a cycle ergometer, separated by four minutes of rest. Peak and mean power output, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, task motivation and perceived enjoyment of the exercise were measured. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in the dependent measures over time and between the two conditions.

Results:
Peak and mean power over the course of the exercise session were higher in the music condition (coefficients = 49.72 [SE=13.55], 23.65 [SE=11.30], p<0.05). A significant time X condition effect emerged for peak power (coefficients = -12.31 [SE = 4.95], p<0.05). There were no between-condition differences for RPE, affect or task motivation. Perceived enjoyment increased over time, and was consistently higher in the music condition (coefficient = 7.00 [SE=3.05], p<0.05).

Conclusion:
Music enhanced in-task performance and enjoyment of an acute bout of SIT. Listening to music during intense interval exercise may be an effective strategy to facilitate participation in, and adherence to, this form of training.

 

Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Autism Treatments

1) Vibroacoustic Treatments for Parkinson’s Patients Lessens or Eradicates Symptoms

Abstract
Objectives
The objectives of this study were to gather preliminary data on psychological and physiologic effects of a 20 minute vibroacoustic treatment. The treatment included 4 components of interest:

1. The Music – Heart opening and powerful
2. Binaural Beats – the music includes both theta and delta frequencies tuned to the music.
3. Sound Chair - The subjects were on a powerful sound chair with 4 bass transducers vibrating the body.
4. Rotating Chair - The sound chair rotates (so the subjects go a bit on their side, then on their back, then upright), activating the vestibular system in the subjects.

Subjects:
12 adults with varying degrees of symptoms and medication participated in the study.

Intervention:
Participants listened to a CD with theta delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies for 20 minutes on the rotating sound chair.

Results:
Subjects filled out a form with information on their symptoms on a scale of 1-10 (10 being the most severe). Upon completion the subjects again rated their symptoms. The symptoms were reduced on average from 8 to 2. 50% of the subjects had their symptoms reduced to 0. One subject had their symptoms from 8 – 6. Subjects were contacted the following day. 30% of the subjects still had some level of symptom reduction. Three subjects reported that they slept well for the first time in over a year.

Conclusions:
The particular music, binaural beats, and rotating sound chair are extremely effective in reducing symptoms. More research is needed to pin point which of the four parameters is the most effective, or if the effect is as a result of the combination of parameters.

2) Vibroacoustic Therapy for Parkinson’s, Fibromyalgia, Alzheimer’s and Depression
by Novotney, Amy. APA, Monitor on Psychology November 13, Vol 44, No. 10
http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/11/music.aspx
(American Psychological Association)

At its core, music is sound, and sound is rooted in vibration. Led by Lee Bartel, PhD, a music professor at the University of Toronto, several researchers are exploring whether sound vibrations absorbed through the body can help ease the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and depression. Known as vibroacoustic therapy, the intervention involves using low frequency sound — similar to a low rumble — to produce vibrations that are applied directly to the body. During vibroacoustic therapy, the patient lies on a mat or bed or sits in a chair embedded with speakers that transmit vibrations at specific computer-generated frequencies that can be heard and felt, says Bartel. He likens the process to sitting on a subwoofer.

In 2009, researchers led by Lauren K. King of the Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Centre at Wilfrid Laurier University, in Waterloo, Ontario, found that short-term use of vibroacoustic therapy with Parkinson's disease patients led to improvements in symptoms, including less rigidity and better walking speed with bigger steps and reduced tremors (NeuroRehabilitation, December, 2009). In that study, the scientists exposed 40 Parkinson's disease patients to low-frequency 30-hertz vibration for one minute, followed by a one-minute break. They then alternated the two for a total of 10 minutes. The researchers are now planning a long-term study of the use of vibroacoustic therapy with Parkinson's patients, as part of a new partnership with the University of Toronto's Music and Health Research Collaboratory, which brings together scientists from around the world who are studying music's effect on health.

The group is also examining something called thalmocortical dysrhythmia — a disorientation of rhythmic brain activity involving the thalamus and the outer cortex that appears to play a role in several medical conditions including Parkinson's, fibromyalgia and possibly even Alzheimer's disease, says Bartel, who directs the collaboratory.

"Since the rhythmic pulses of music can drive and stabilize this disorientation, we believe that low-frequency sound might help with these conditions," Bartel says. He is leading a study using vibroacoustic therapy with patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. The hope is that using the therapy to restore normal communication among brain regions may allow for greater memory retrieval, he says.

"We've already seen glimmers of hope in a case study with a patient who had just been diagnosed with the disorder," Bartel says. "After stimulating her with 40-hertz sound for 30 minutes three times a week for four weeks, she could recall the names of her grandchildren more easily, and her husband reported good improvement in her condition."

The goal of all of this work is to develop "dosable" and "prescribable" music therapy and music as medicine protocols that serve specific neurologic functions and attend to deficits that may result from many of these neurologically based conditions. Rather than viewing music only as a cultural phenomenon, Bartel says, the art should be seen as a vibratory stimulus that has cognitive and memory dimensions.

"Only when we look at it in this way do we start to see the interface to how the brain and body work together."

3) Jean-Martin Charcot and His Vibratory Chair for Parkinson Disease
http://www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=1744&accno=2010367955

Vibration therapy is currently used in diverse medical specialties ranging from orthopedics to urology to sports medicine. The celebrated 19th-century neurologist, J.-M. Charcot, used vibratory therapy to treat Parkinson disease (PD). This study analyzed printed writings by Charcot and other writers on vibratory therapy and accessed unpublished notes from the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris. Charcot lectured on several occasions on vibratory therapy and its neurologic applications. He developed a vibration chair for patients with PD after he observed that patients were more comfortable and slept better after a train or carriage ride. He replicated this experience by having patients undergo daily 30-minute sessions in the automated vibratory chair (fauteuil trépidant). His junior colleague, Gilles de la Tourette, extended these observations and developed a helmet that vibrated the head on the premise that the brain responded directly to the pulsations. Although after Charcot’s death vibratory therapy was not widely pursued, vibratory appliances are reemerging in 21st century medicine and can be retested using adaptations of Charcot’s neurologic protocols.

Goetz, C. G. (2009). Jean-Martin Charcot and his vibratory chair for Parkinson disease. Neurology, 73(6), 475-478.

4) Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilitieshttp://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/effects-of-vibroacoustic-music-on-challenging-behaviors/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750946708000895

Abstract:
Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. The participants were randomized into two groups in a randomized controlled trial evaluation. The first group received 10 - 20 min sessions with vibroacoustic music treatment for 5 weeks. Then the second group received the same treatment during the next 5 weeks. Behavior was assessed using the Behavior Problems Inventory in all participants before the treatment, after the first group had completed their treatment, and again after the second group had completed their treatment. In order to evaluate each session, the accompanying assistants assessed behavior on different scales after each session. In addition, the sessions were videotaped and analyzed minute by minute for challenging behaviors. The results revealed that vibroacoustic music reduced self-injurious, stereotypic, and aggressive destructive behaviors in the participants. In addition, the results indicated that the effect of vibroacoustic music was to some extent dependent on the participants’ diagnosis. Implications for vibroacoustic music theory and practice are discussed.

5) Effects of Low Frequency Sound Treatment on the Consciousness State of the Alzheimer patients Pilot Study
http://www.musicmedicinecollaboration.com/topic/effects-of-low-frequency-sound-treatment-on-the-consciousness-state-of-the-alzhe-4/

By Dr. Heidi Ahonen, Professor of Music Therapy, WLU, Waterloo, ON, Canada, Director, Manfred and Penny Conrad Institute for Music Therapy Research http://www.soundeffects.wlu.ca

Summary of Proposed Research
According to brain wave research, the 40Hz frequency from the thalamus area has an important role in the regulation of auditory-evoked potentials. (Galambos, Makeing, Tamachoff, 1981, Naatanen, 1992,). There has also been some evidence that the 40Hz brain wave is disturbed or disappears during in the early stages of Alzheimer disease (Llinas & Ribary, 1992; Ribary et al. 1991; van Deursen, Vuurman, Verhey, et. al.; Huang et al. 2000; Jelic et al. 1996; Jeong 2004; Koenig et al. 2005; Stam et al. 2002, 2003; Lustig et al. 2003). Llinas (1993) and Lehikoinen (1994, 1997) suggest that with auditory stimulation using a 40 Hz sound, it is possible to reinforce this thalamus frequency.

My research rationale is based on these assumptions. If Thalamus has a role in the cognitive brain functioning, and if the Thalamus frequency is disturbed in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, I believe it would be fascinating to stimulate it with auditory stimulation using a 40 Hz sound, and investigate this stimulation’s potential effect on cognitive brain functioning of the Alzheimer clients.

My research questions will investigate:

(1) Can the thalamus frequency be reinforced by the physioacoustic 40Hz intervention?
(2) Is the 40 Hz that have been disturbed or disappeared during the early stages of Alzheimer’s coming back if stimulated by the 40 Hz frequency created by the Physioacoustic method?
(3) Do Alzheimer patients receiving the 40Hz frequency intervention achieve a greater degree of consciousness and reality orientation than those in the control groups?
(4) Do Alzheimer patients receiving the 40Hz frequency intervention achieve a greater degree of short and long term memory than those in the control groups?
(5) Can the Physioacoustic 40Hz frequency-intervention be a potential intervention for Alzheimer’s clients?

During the various research trials Physioacoustic low frequency sound (Thalamus frequency 40Hz) is applied utilizing two control groups of Alzheimer patients, receiving either familiar music, or without familiar music. In a comparison of these two, it is anticipated that the application of the Physioacoustic low frequency sound will result in an increase of short-term consciousness, reality orientation, and affect both short-term and long-term memory capacities with Alzheimer patients. Both statistical analysis and qualitative analysis will be conducted. The combination of low frequency sound with familiar music is anticipated to be the most effective treatment modality with Alzheimer patients.

Experimental/control groups
(1) Group 1: During the 30 minute treatment these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will experience the 40Hz low frequency treatment and interview.
(2) Group 2: During the 30 minute treatment these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will simultaneously experience the conventional music therapy (familiar music: listening/singing) and the 40Hz low frequency treatment + interview by the therapist. The music therapist will choose the applicable music.
(3) Control Group 1: During the four 30 minute treatments these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will experience only conventional music therapy (familiar music: listening/singing) + interview by the therapist. The music therapist chooses the applicable music.
(4) Control Group 2: During the four 30 minute treatments these participants, while sitting in the PA chair, will be interviewed by the therapist only.

 

Fibromyalgia Treatments

1) Vibroacoustic Therapy for Parkinson’s, Fibromyalgia, Alzheimer’s and Depression
by Novotney, Amy. APA, Monitor on Psychology November 13, Vol 44, No. 10
http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/11/music.aspx
(American Psychological Association)

At its core, music is sound, and sound is rooted in vibration. Led by Lee Bartel, PhD, a music professor at the University of Toronto, several researchers are exploring whether sound vibrations absorbed through the body can help ease the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and depression. Known as vibroacoustic therapy, the intervention involves using low frequency sound — similar to a low rumble — to produce vibrations that are applied directly to the body. During vibroacoustic therapy, the patient lies on a mat or bed or sits in a chair embedded with speakers that transmit vibrations at specific computer-generated frequencies that can be heard and felt, says Bartel. He likens the process to sitting on a subwoofer.

In 2009, researchers led by Lauren K. King of the Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Centre at Wilfrid Laurier University, in Waterloo, Ontario, found that short-term use of vibroacoustic therapy with Parkinson's disease patients led to improvements in symptoms, including less rigidity and better walking speed with bigger steps and reduced tremors (NeuroRehabilitation, December, 2009). In that study, the scientists exposed 40 Parkinson's disease patients to low-frequency 30-hertz vibration for one minute, followed by a one-minute break. They then alternated the two for a total of 10 minutes. The researchers are now planning a long-term study of the use of vibroacoustic therapy with Parkinson's patients, as part of a new partnership with the University of Toronto's Music and Health Research Collaboratory, which brings together scientists from around the world who are studying music's effect on health.

The group is also examining something called thalmocortical dysrhythmia — a disorientation of rhythmic brain activity involving the thalamus and the outer cortex that appears to play a role in several medical conditions including Parkinson's, fibromyalgia and possibly even Alzheimer's disease, says Bartel, who directs the collaboratory.

"Since the rhythmic pulses of music can drive and stabilize this disorientation, we believe that low-frequency sound might help with these conditions," Bartel says. He is leading a study using vibroacoustic therapy with patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. The hope is that using the therapy to restore normal communication among brain regions may allow for greater memory retrieval, he says.

"We've already seen glimmers of hope in a case study with a patient who had just been diagnosed with the disorder," Bartel says. "After stimulating her with 40-hertz sound for 30 minutes three times a week for four weeks, she could recall the names of her grandchildren more easily, and her husband reported good improvement in her condition."

The goal of all of this work is to develop "dosable" and "prescribable" music therapy and music as medicine protocols that serve specific neurologic functions and attend to deficits that may result from many of these neurologically based conditions. Rather than viewing music only as a cultural phenomenon, Bartel says, the art should be seen as a vibratory stimulus that has cognitive and memory dimensions.

"Only when we look at it in this way do we start to see the interface to how the brain and body work together."

Cancer Treatments


1) Vibroacoustic Sound Therapy effective for Symptom Reduction
Patrick, George, Recreation Therapy-Rehabilitation, Medicine Department, Clinical Center NIH
http://www.vibrationtherapy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Effects-of-VibroAcoustic-Music-on-Symptom-Reduction.pdf
(Might need to copy and paste the link for it to work)

A study done on the effect of using vibroacoustic music as a treatment for symptom reduction in patients suffering from a variety of diagnoses including cancer, heart, lung and blood disorders, infectious disease, and mood disorders. Their most frequently identified symptoms were tension-anxiety, pain, fatigue, nausea, headache and depression. As a result of the vibroacoustic session, the reported intensity of symptoms was reduced from pre to post by the following percentages: nausea, 61%; headache, 58%; tension-anxiety, 54%; pain, 53%; depressed mood, 49%; and fatigue, 47%.

Cellular Health

1) Resonant Frequency of Cells Trigger Metabolism
A research project described in the book, “The Field,” by Lynne McTaggart showed that you could trigger a cell’s metabolism by playing its frequency to it. John Reid has found that when you transmit the cell’s resonant frequency to the cell, it receive the energy and thrives.

Boosting Immune System

1) Music boosts immunity
Music can boost the immune function. Scientists explain that a particular type of music can create a positive and profound emotional experience, which leads to secretion of immune-boosting hormones22. This helps contribute to a reduction in the factors responsible for illness. Listening to music or singing can also decrease levels of stress-related hormone cortisol. Higher levels of cortisol can lead to a decreased immune response23-24.

22. Kuhn D. The effects of active and passive participation in musical activity on the immune system as measured by salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA). J Music Ther. 2002 Spring;39(1):30-9. PubMed

23. le Roux FH, Bouic PJ, Bester MM. The effect of Bach's magnificat on emotions, immune, and endocrine parameters during physiotherapy treatment of patients with infectious lung conditions. J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):156-68. PubMed

24. Kreutz G, Bongard S, Rohrmann S, Hodapp V, Grebe D. Effects of choir singing or listening on secretory immunoglobulin A, cortisol, and emotional state. J Behav Med. 2004 Dec;27(6):623-35. PubMed

2) Music Improves the Body's Immune System function and Reduces Stress
by Novotney, Amy. APA, Monitor on Psychology November 13, Vol 44, No. 10
http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/11/music.aspx
(American Psychological Association)

While music has long been recognized as an effective form of therapy to provide an outlet for emotions, the notion of using song, sound frequencies and rhythm to treat physical ailments is a relatively new domain, says psychologist Daniel J. Levitin, PhD, who studies the neuroscience of music at McGill University in Montreal. A wealth of new studies is touting the benefits of music on mental and physical health. For example, in a meta-analysis of 400 studies, Levitin and his postgraduate research fellow, Mona

Lisa Chanda, PhD, found that music improves the body's immune system function and reduces stress. Listening to music was also found to be more effective than prescription drugs in reducing anxiety before surgery (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, April, 2013)."We've found compelling evidence that musical interventions can play a health-care role in settings ranging from operating rooms to family clinics," says Levitin, author of the book "This is Your Brain on Music" (Plume/Penguin, 2007). The analysis also points to just how music influences health. The researchers found that listening to and playing music increase the body's production of the antibody immunoglobulin A and natural killer cells — the cells that attack invading viruses and boost the immune system's effectiveness. Music also reduces levels of the stress hormone cortisol.

"This is one reason why music is associated with relaxation," Levitin says.

One recent study on the link between music and stress found that music can help soothe pediatric emergency room patients (JAMA Pediatrics, July, 2013). In the trial with 42 children ages 3 to 11, University of Alberta researchers found that patients who listened to relaxing music while getting an IV inserted reported significantly less pain, and some demonstrated significantly less distress, compared with patients who did not listen to music. In addition, in the music-listening group, more than two-thirds of the health-care providers reported that the IVs were very easy to administer — compared with 38 percent of providers treating the group that did not listen to music.

"There is growing scientific evidence showing that the brain responds to music in very specific ways," says Lisa Hartling, PhD, professor of pediatrics at the University of Alberta and lead author of the study. "Playing music for kids during painful medical procedures is a simple intervention that can make a big difference."

Music can help adult patients, too. Researchers at Khoo Teck Puat Hospital in Singapore found that patients in palliative care who took part in live music therapy sessions reported relief from persistent pain (Progress in Palliative Care, July, 2013). Music therapists worked closely with the patients to individually tailor the intervention, and patients took part in singing, instrument playing, lyric discussion and even song writing as they worked toward accepting an illness or weighed end-of-life issues.

"Active music engagement allowed the patients to reconnect with the healthy parts of themselves, even in the face of a debilitating condition or disease-related suffering," says music therapist Melanie Kwan, co-author of the study and president of the Association for Music Therapy, Singapore. "When their acute pain symptoms were relieved, patients were finally able to rest."

 

Sound Healing Research Foundation
The Institute has established a research foundation to study the effectiveness of sound physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually. We have also created the "GeneOM Project" to map out all of the frequencies of every part of the body in a healthy human. Go to www.GeneOM.com for more information.